The accession of Poland to the European Union was followed by increased international mobility of the population of our country. Today, several years after May 1, 2004, a wave of returns to Poland is observed. The aim of this analysis is twofold: fi rst, to identify a selective pattern of return migration with regard to the socio-demographic features and geographical directions of mobility, and second, to investigate the impact of migratory experience on the probability of economic activity, employment and unemployment after returning to the Polish labour market. The econometric analysis is based on the Labour Force Survey. The obtained results show that during the period 1999–2009 middle-aged persons, with vocational education, originating from rural areas, choosing traditional destinations (i.e. Germany) were most prone to return to Poland. Migrants had less chances to fi nd employment after their return to Poland than persons who have not undertaken migration, which could result both from a selection of persons experiencing labour market diffi culties and from a negative impact of migration on human and social capital. Contemporary return migration of Polish nationals is not determined by domestic labor market opportunities but by other factors – diffi culties with fi nding employment abroad, reaching one’s migration objectives, and other non-occupational problems, whereas settlement emigration is shaped by pull factors related to the destination countries.