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2011 | 2(18) | 255-274

Article title

Wybrane aspekty funkcjonowania PPR i aparatu polityczno-wychowawczego w „ludowej” Marynarce Wojennej lat 1944–1947


Title variants

Selected aspects of the functioning of the PWP and the political-educational apparatus within the Polish Navy in the years 1944–1947

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Selected aspects of the functioning of the PWP and the political-educational apparatus within the Polish Navy in the years 1944–1947 When the first Polish military units were formed in the USSR, it became clear that the future Polish armed forces would lose their national and democratic character. Already in May 1943 real control over the army was taken over by the Association of Polish Patriots, replaced in November 1944 by the Military Department of the Central Committee of the Polish Workers’ Party—an informal institution which nevertheless had unlimited power over all types of forces, including the navy. Guaranteeing the implementation of PWP directives were the so-called party plenipotentiaries within the military units. Together with the political-educational sections, the plenipotentiaries worked to maintain the “proper image” of the Polish navy. During the first period of the navy’s formation, the plenipo - tentiaries were generally Soviet officers—bolshevik members of the communist party, unfamiliar with Poland’s complex political situation. Consequently, they were replaced by the Central Team of the Ministry of National Defense made up of high-level PWP members. Similar teams were also formed at lower levels of command. It was through the agency of just such a navy District Team headed by Cpt. Józef Urbanowicz, deputy commander of the navy for political-educational affairs, that Rear Admiral Adam Mohuczy was removed from the command of the Polish navy. Mohuczy’s vision of a strong national navy grounded on the pre-war cadre, traditions, and Polish military thought, was at odds with the vision of the political decision makers. Moreover, Mohuczy did not conform to the directions of the party ideologues. It is worth emphasizing that the removal of Mohuczy from his position took place shortly after the formation of the Polish parliament and Bolesław Bierut’s election to the presidency—i.e., after the communists had taken complete control. This event initiated the first “personnel purges” and repressions in the navy. In just the month of March 1947, 90 personnel changes in key leadership positions took place, including dismissals from the navy. Based on accusations and denunciations collected by party activists and the navy’s District Team, Military Information prepared materials necessary for the arrest of Cpt. Adam Mohuczy in December 1949. In 1950, Ctp. Adam Mohuczy, together with other officers, was sentenced to long-term imprisonment. He died in the Sztum prison on May 7, 1953.



  • Instytut Historii Akademii Marynarki Wojennej w Gdyni


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Publication order reference


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