Full-text resources of CEJSH and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


2019 | 2 | 1(3) | 50-61

Article title

Zbrodnie przeciwko ludzkości w myśli prawnej Herscha Lauterpachta



Title variants

Crimes against humanity in the legal thought of Hersch Lauterpacht

Languages of publication



Zbrodnie przeciwko ludzkości to jedna z czterech kategorii zbrodni prawa międzynarodowego, obok ludobójstwa, zbrodni wojennych i zbrodni agresji. Mimo, że koncepcja zbrodni przeciwko ludzkości znana jest prawu międzynarodowemu co najmniej od czasu umieszczenia ich w Karcie MTW w Norymberdze, samo pojęcie wciąż nie jest do końca jasne. Pełne jego zrozumienie wymaga zatem prześledzenia ich rodowodu ideowego, w tym zwłaszcza okoliczności, które sprawiły, że pojawiły się one jako jeden z zarzutów stawianych w procesie przed MTW. Kluczową rolę w umieszczeniu ich w Karcie MTW przypisuje się Herschowi Lauterpachtowi, który w swojej wcześniejszej twórczości nie podejmował co prawda problematyki zbrodni przeciwko ludzkości, jednak ich fundamenty aksjologiczne i normatywne, można wyinterpretować z całokształtu jego dorobku naukowego.
Crimes against humanity is one of the four major categories of international crimes together with genocide, war crimes and the crime of aggression. Although the concept of crimes against humanity has been recognized in international law since its inclusion in the Charter of the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg, the very idea of this crime still seems elusive. In order to properly understand its character, the analysis of its philosophical and doctrinal background will be conducted, with a special emphasis on circumstances that led to placing crimes against humanity among the charges during the Nuremberg trial. It is believed that it was Hersch Lauterpacht who contributed to this development, which may seem surprising, considering the fact that he had never taken up the issue of crimes against humanity in his research. Ethical and normative foundations of the concept can however be traced throughout his work in the field of international law.


  • Uniwersytet Wrocławski


  • Minutes of Conference Session of August 2, 1945, [w:] Report of Robert H. Jackson, United States Representative to The International Conference on Military Trials, London 1945. A documentary record of negotiations of the Representatives of the United States of America, the Provisional Government of the French Republic, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, culminating in the Agreement and Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Department of State Publication 3080, 1949, s. 416.
  • US et al. vs. Göring et al., International Military Tribunal Judgment, 01.10.1946, [w:] Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, Official Text in the English Language, Vol. I, Nuremberg 1947, s. 223.
  • Bush Jonathan, Nuremberg and Beyond: Jacob Robinson, International Lawyer, „Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review” 2017, Vol. 39, No. 1, s. 264-274.
  • Cassese Antonio., International Criminal Law, Oxford – New York 2008, s. 104.
  • Cherif Bassiouni, Mahmoud, Crimes Against Humanity: Historical Evolution and Contemporary Application, Cambridge – New York 2011, s. 1.
  • Douglas Lawrence, The Memory of Judgment. Making Law and History in the Trials of the Holocaust, New Haven 2001, s. 44.
  • Kochavi Arieh, Prelude to Nuremberg: Allied War Crimes Policy and the Question of Punishment, Chapel Hill 1998, s. 144-151.
  • Koskenniemi Marti, Lauterpacht: The Victorian Tradition in International Law, „European Journal of International Law” 1997, Vol. 8, Issue 2, s. 217-246.
  • Koskenniemi Marti, Hersch Lauterpacht and the Development of International Criminal Law, „Journal of International Criminal Justice” 2004, No. 2, s. 811-814.
  • Kuper Leo, Genocide. Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century, New Haven – London 1982, s. 11-52.
  • Lauterpacht Elihu, The Life of Hersch Lauterpacht, Cambridge – New York 2010, s. 131-272.
  • Lauterpacht Hersch, Westlake and Present Day International Law, „Economica” 1925, No. 15, s. 324.
  • Lauterpacht Hersch, Spinoza and International Law, „British Year Book of International Law” 1927, No. 8, s. 91-105.
  • Lauterpacht Hersch, The Law of Nations, the Law of Nature and the Rights of Man, „Transactions of the Grotius Society” 1943, Vol. 29, s. 5-29.
  • Lauterpacht Hersch, The Law of Nations and the Punishment of War Crimes, „British Year Book of International Law” 1944, No. 21, s. 61.
  • Lauterpacht Hersch, The Grotian Tradition in International Law, „British Year Book of International Law” 1946, No. 23, s. 14-46.
  • Lauterpacht Hersch, Draft Nuremberg Speeches, „Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law” 2012, No. 1, s. 48-107.
  • von Lingen Kerstin, Defining Crimes Against Humanity: The Contribution of the United Nations War Crimes Commission to International Criminal Law, 1944-1947, [w:] Historical Origins of International Criminal Law, ed. M. Bergsmo, W. L. Cheah, P. Yi, Vol. 1, Brussels 2014, s. 477.
  • von Lingen Kerstin, Setting the Path for the UNWCC: The Representation of European Exile Governments on the London International Assembly and the Commission for Penal Reconstruction and Development, 1941-1944, „Criminal Law Forum” 2014, Vol. 25, s. 70.
  • Mullins Christopher, Conflict Victimization and Post-Conflict Justice 1945-2008, [w:] The Pursuit of International Criminal Justice: A World Study on Conflicts, Victimization, and Post-Conflict Justice, ed. M. Cherif Bassiouni, Vol. 1, Antwerpia 2010, s. 67.
  • Redzik Adam, Hersch Lauterpacht (1897–1960) – droga do nauki prawa międzynarodowego, „Palestra” 2017, nr 10, s. 52-60.
  • Rosenne, Shabtai., Jacob Robinson: In Memoriam, „Israel Law Review” 1978, Vol. 13, No. 3, s. 291.
  • Sands Philippe, Twin Peaks: The Hersch Lauterpacht Draft Nuremberg Speeches, „Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law” 2012, No. 1, s. 42.
  • Sands Philippe, East West Street. On the Origins of “Genocide” and “Crimes Against Humanity”, New York 2017, s. 3-115.
  • Sands Philippe, Redzik Adam, Lauterpachtów dwóch: Elihu (1928–2017) i Hersch (1897–1960), „Palestra” 2017, nr 7-8, s. 215.
  • Shawcross Hartley, Opening Statement before the International Military Tribunal, [w:] Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, Official Text in the English Language, Vol. III, Nuremberg 1947, s. 105.
  • Shawcross Hartley, Final speech on behalf of the Prosecution, [w:] Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, Official Text in the English Language, Vol. XIX, Nuremberg 1947, s. 471-472.
  • Skinner Quentin., Znaczenie i rozumienie w historii idei, tłumaczenie. F. Biały, „Refleksje” 2014, nr 9, s. 130.
  • Vrdoljak Ana Filipa, Human Rights and Genocide: The Work of Lauterpacht and Lemkin in Modern International Law, „The European Journal of International Law” 2010, Vol. 20, No. 4, s. 1163-1189.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.