When in 1863 the University Statute was approved, the problem of the staff at St. Vladimir University in 1863–1883 significantly intensified. The extremely complex and lengthy challenges to obtaining scientific degrees, inadequate material and financial assistance, as well as contradictions among members of faculties and the Academic Council during the election to the vacant departments contributed to the deficiency of scientific and pedagogical staff with the highest scientific degrees. During the research general scientific (historical and geographical analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization, comparison) and historical-logical methods were used. The aim of the article is to elucidate theoretical and methodological aspects of selecting scientific and pedagogical staff for the private associate professors’ posts of St. Volodymyr University in 1863–1883, especially at the physics-mathematics and medical faculties. The theoretical and methodical aspects of selecting scientific and pedagogical staff for the private associate professors’ posts of St. Volodymyr University in 1863–1883 are elucidated in the article. The attention is brought to the focus that the introduction of the private associate professor’s post contributed to creating competitive educational environment, renewed research, modernized the methodology of educational and upbringing areas. It is indicated that private associate professors have become authors and initiators of new courses and special courses, thereby excluding stagnation phenomena of extended character in the mostly conservative professor medium. It is noted the objective and nonobjective attitude to the privat-associate professors took place during the election to the vacant departments, in particular concerning the evaluation of their academic experience and the quality of their trial lectures. It is indicated that private associate professors’ traineeship abroad for two and more years has become a tradition. In conclusion, despite all the difficulties and problems the private associate professors’ institute in St. Volodymyr University proved its vitality and necessity.