The formation of the middle class in any country is the key and core of economic development, so we need to study the conditions and problems of the middle class in Ukraine. The level of education and training of employees are the foundation of stratification patterns in developed countries, so the purpose of this article is to analyse the characteristics of vocational qualification structure of Ukrainian population and its correlation with the level of material well-being. To achieve this goal, we considered vocational qualification structure of the population, dynamics and distribution of the employed population according income and occupational group. The study showed that there is no correlation between the level of professional qualifications and income in Ukraine. There is also no correlation between education, qualification, income and social status. These trends weaken the prerequisites for the formation of the middle class. For the development and strengthening of the middle class Ukraine requires coordinated economic policy at all levels, including: definition of property rights education program, transformation of wages system in the public sector, overcoming the oligarchic system of government.