Joseph Vialatoux is the main figure in social Catholicism in France in the first half of the twentieth century. During the Nazi occupation he examined the nature of Pétain’s government in Vichy and the legitimacy of resistance of General de Gaulle. Apart from a detailed analysis of the Vichy’s power, which Vialatoux reveals as a totalitarian regime, he deals with general philosophical reflections on political power. It may be surprising for some that here the author uses the scholastic model, which can already be found in works more than three hundred years earlier in the political thinking of Francisco Suárez. This theoretical analysis then helps the author defend the ideas of the legitimacy of the resistance of General de Gaulle, in which Vialatoux sees a representative of the national consciousness and defending the general welfare of the French nation.