Full-text resources of CEJSH and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl


2014 | 6(42) | 1 | 157-169

Article title

Transfer wiedzy z uczelni do regionalnej gospodarki za pośrednictwem spółek „spin-off”


Title variants

Transfer of Knowledge from the University to Regional Economy by the “spin-off” Companies

Languages of publication



Article is devoted to issues of knowledge transfer from universities to the regional economy by "spin-offs". Despite the complexity of this process, the empirical literature devotes relatively little attention to the particular "academic" characteristics of universitiesbased “spin-off” companies, rarely taking into account the specificity of the universities’ business ventures (and especially the role of scientists as entrepreneurs). The following sections discuss the Bayh'a-Dole Act, which opened for American universities the opportunity to undertake entrepreneurial activities, especially in the area of licensing. The article presents the overview of the selected literature on the contribution of academic entrepreneurship to business creation.







Physical description


  • adiunkt Instytutu Historii i Stosunków Międzynarodowych na Wydziale Humanistycznym Uniwersytetu Warmińsko-Mazurskiego w Olsztynie; adres do korespondencji: ul. Oczapowskiego 4, 10-957 Olsztyn


  • Adams J.D., Black G.C., Clemmons J.R., Stephan P.S.: Scientific teams and institutional collaborations: evidence from US universities, 1981-1999, 2005.
  • Apple R.D.: Patenting university research. Harry Steenbock and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation’, “Isis” 1980, No 80, s. 375-394.
  • Agrawal A., Henderson R.: Knowledge Transfer from MIT, “Management Science” 48(2002), No. 1, s. 432-437.
  • Audretsch D.B., Stephan P.E.: Knowledge spillovers in biotechnology: sources and incentives, “Journal of Evolutionary Economics” 1999, nr 1, s. 43-51
  • Audretsch D.B., Stephan P.E.: Company-scientists locational links: the case of bio-technology, “American Economic Review “ 1996, No 86(3), s. 97-207.
  • Audretsch D.B.: Innovation and Industry Evolution, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 1995.
  • Bodas Freitas I.M., Verspagen B.: The motivations, organization and outcomes of university-industry interaction in the Netherlands, UNU-MERIT Working Paper #2009-11 42, 2009.
  • BokD. C.: Universities in the marketplace. The Commercialization of Higher Education. Princeton-Oxford: Princeton University Press 2003.
  • Bonacccorsi, A.: Better policies vs better institutions in European science. Draft paper presented to the PRIME General Conference, Manchester, January 7-9 2005.
  • Buenstorf G.: Is commercialization good or bad for science? Individual-level evidence from the Max Planck Society, “Research Policy” 38(2009), No. 2, s.278-301.
  • Clark B.R. (red.): The Research Foundations of Graduate Education: Germany, Britain, France, United States, Japan, University of California Press 1993.
  • Colyvas J., Crow M., Gelijns A., Mazzoleni R., Nelson R.R., Rosenberg N., Sampat B. N.: How Do University Inventions Get Into Practice?, “Management Science” 48(2002), No. 1, s. 61-72.
  • Di Gregorio D., Shane S.: Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others? “Research Policy” 32(2003), No. 2, s. 100-104.
  • Etzkowitz H., De Mello J.M.C., Almeida M.: Towards “meta-innovation” in Brazil: The evolution of the incubator and the emergence of a triple helix, “Research Policy” 34(2005), No. 4, s. 145-198.
  • Etzkowitz H.: Research groups as “quasi-firms”: the invention of the entrepreneurial university, “Research Policy” 2003, s. 267-304.
  • Etzkowitz H.: Entrepreneurial Scientists and Entrepreneurial Universities in Academic Science. Minerva, 1983.
  • Etzkowitz H.: The norms of entrepreneurial science: Cognitive effects of the new university-industry linkages, “Research Policy” 27(1998), No. 8, s. 189-208.
  • Feldman M., Feller I., Berkowitz J., Burton R.: Equity and the Technology Transfer Strategies of American Research Universities, “Management Science” 48(2002), No. 1, s. 105-121.
  • Franklin S.J., Wright M., Lockett A.: Academic and surrogate entrepreneurs in university spin-out companies, “Journal of Technology Transfer” 2001, s. 127-141.
  • Franzoni C., Lissoni F.: Academic entrepreneurs: critical issues and lessons for Europe, w: Varga A. (red.): Universities, Knowledge Transfer and Regional Development: Geography, Entrepreneurship and Policy, Cheltenham, UK-Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar 2009, s. 18-31.
  • Graham H.D., Diamond N.A.: The Rise of American Research Universities: Elites and Challengers in the Postwar Era, Johns Hopkins University Press 1997.
  • Henderson R.: Underinvestment and incompetence as a response to radical innovation: evidence from the photolithographic alignment equipment industry, “Rand Journal of Economics” 1993, No 24 (2), s. 248-270.
  • Goldestein H.: What We Know and What We Don’t Know About the Regional Economic Impact of Universities, w: Universities, Knowledge Transfer and regional development: geography, entrepreneurship and policy, red. A. Varga, Cheltenham 2009, s. 173-194.
  • Goldstein H. A.: Institutions for Knowledge Generation and Knowledge Flows - Building Innovative Capabilities for Regions. Paper for the 10th Uddevalla Symposium, 14-16 June 2007, Uddevalla 2007.
  • Helm R., Mauroner O.: Success of research-based spin-offs. State-of-the-art and guidelines for further research, “Review of Managerial Science” 1(2007). No. 3, s. 78-90.
  • Klofsten M., Jones-Evans D.: Comparing Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe - The Case of Sweden and Ireland, “Small Business Economics”14(2000), No. 4, s. 411-437.
  • Koschatzky K., Hemer J.: Firm formation and economic development - What drives academic spin-offs to success or failure?, w: A. Varga (red.), Universities, Knowledge Transfer, s. 76-93.
  • Landry R., Amara N., Rherrad I.: Why are some university researchers more likely to create spin-offs than others? Evidence from Canadian universities, “Research Policy” 35(2006), No. 10, s. 104-123.
  • Larédo P., Mustar P. (red.), Research and Innovation Policies in the +ew Global Economy’, Cheltenham, UK-Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar 2001.
  • Lawton Smith H., Bagchi-Sen S.: Academic Entrepreneurship in Oxfordshire: Emergence, Growth and the Locality. Paper to be presented at DRUID conference Copen¬hagen June 17-20 2008.
  • Lissoni, F., Llerena P., McKelvey M., Sanditov B.: Academic patenting in Europe: new evidence from the KEINS Database’, CESPRI Working Paper 202, Universita ‘L.Bocconi’, Milano 2007.
  • Louis K.S., Blumenthal D., Gluck M.E., Stoto M.A.: Entrepreneurs in Academe: An Exploration of Behaviors among Life Scientists, “Administrative Science Quarterly” 1989, nr 2, s. 26-37.
  • Louis K.S., Jones L.M., Anderson M.S., Blumenthal D., Cambell E.G.: Entre-preneurship, Secrecy, and Productivity: A Comparison of Clinical and Non-Clinical Life Sciences Faculty, “The Journal of Technology Transfer” 26(2001), No. 3, s. 321-328.
  • Lowe R.A., Gonzales-Brambila C.: Faculty Entrepreneurs and Research Productivity. “Journal of Technology Transfer” 32(2007), No. 3, s. 456-574.
  • Merton R.K.: The Matthew Effect in Science, II. Cumulative Advantage and the Symbolism of Intellectual Property, ISIS, 1988, No 79, s. 545-561.
  • Meyer M.: Academic entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial academics? Research-based ventures and public support mechanisms, “R&D Management” 33(2003), No. 2, s. 89-103.
  • Morgan R.P., Kruytbosch C., Kannankutty N.: Patenting and Invention Activity of U.S. Scientists and Engineers in the Academic Sector: Comparison with Industry, “Journal of Technology Transfer” 26(2001), No. 1-2, s. 190-203.
  • Mowery D.C., Sampat B.N.: Patenting and licensing university inventions: lessons from the history of the research corporations’, “Industrial and Corporate Change” 10(2001), No 2, s. 311-330.
  • Ndonzuau F.N., Pirnay F., Surlemont B.: A Stage Model of Academic Spin-off Creation, “Technovation” 22(2002), No 5, s. 281-289.
  • Renault C.S.: Academic Capitalism and University Incentives for Faculty Entrepreneurship, “Journal of Technology Transfer” 31(2006), No. 2, s. 227-239.
  • Rudolph F.: The American College and University: A History, University of Georgia Press 1990.
  • Shane S., Khurana R.: Bringing individuals back in: the effect of career experience on new firm founding, “Industrial and Corporate Change” 12(2003), No 3, s. 519-543.
  • Shane S., Stuart T.: Organizational endowments and the performance of university start¬ups’, “Management Science” 48(2002), No 1, s. 57-71.
  • Stephan P.E., Everhart S.: The changing rewards to science: the case of biotechnology, “Small Business Economics” 1998, s. 65-82.
  • Stephan P.E., Levin S.G.: The importance of implicit contracts in collaborative scientific research, w: P. Mirowski, E.M. Sent (red.), Science Bought and Sold. Essays in the Economics of Science, University of Chicago Press 2002, s. 103-121.
  • Thursby J.G., Jensen R., Thursby M.C.: Objectives, characteristics and outcomes: a survey of major US universities’, “Journal of Technology Transfer” 2001, s. 201-234.
  • Trow M.: In praise of weakness: chartering, the university of the United States, and Dartmouth College, Center for Studies in Higher Education Research and Occasional Paper CHSE, Berkeley: University of California 2003.
  • Varga A.: Universities, Knowledge Transfer and Regional Development: Geography, Entre-preneurship and Policy, Cheltenham, UK-Northampton, MA, USA.: Edward Elgar 2009.
  • Vohora A., Wright M., Lockett A.: Critical junctures in the development of university high-tech spinout companies, “Research Policy” 33(2004), No. 1, s. 147-175.
  • Wright M., Clarysse B., Mustar P., Lockett A.: Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe, Cheltenham, UK-Northampton, MA, USA.: Edward Elgar 2007.
  • Wright M., Lockett A., Clarysse B., Binks M.: University spin-out companies and venture capital, “Research Policy” 35(2006), No. 4, s. 521-531.
  • Zucker L.G., Darby M.R.: Star scientists and institutional transformation: patterns of in¬vention and innovation in the formation of biotechnology industry, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Colloquium paper, 1996.
  • Zucker L.G., Darby M.R., Brewer M.B.: Intellectual human capital and the birth of US biotechnology enterprises, “American Economic Review” 1998, s. 641-652.

Document Type

Publication order reference


YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.