The article analyzed the impact of old (prehistoric, medieval) and modern settlement on the nature of the Holocene alluvial sediments at the bottom of the Bystra valley. It was shown that the transition from peat to mineral deposits was the result of Neolithic farming. Nomadic culture of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age have helped to stop the denudation slope sand increasing erosion in the bottom of the river valley. Restarting the denudation in the basin and the beginning of accumulation on the Bystra floodplain occurred only in the tenth century. Bystra river basin deforestation in modern times caused catastrophic linear erosion, denudation slopes and speed up the submission of anthropogenic alluvial soils.