When compiling the Dictionary of Czech Dialects, which has been arising at the Department of Dialectology of the Institute of the Czech Language of the CAS, v. v. i., in Brno since 2011, extensive linguistic material concerning vernacular names of the vanished world of peddlers was gathered. It comes from the Archive of Folk Speech founded in 1952 and the collecting of material excerpted from published, handwritten as well as electronic dialect sources, mainly from the all-national correspondence lexical survey carried out in the 1950s. Based on the example of names sorted into 5 semantic groups (1. common names, 2. names reflecting the local origin of peddlers, 3. names reflecting the kind of goods, 4. names reflecting the type of vessel (hamper, basket), and 5. names indicating the amount of goods), the author presents the denominations of peddlers from the turn of the 20th century, both in their dialect diversity and geographic projection. Each group has its specific feature. The change in the geopolitical arrangement of Europe, e.g., shows that some of the terms from the second group (grán, kočebrák) can currently be identified only with the help of the dictionary. The end of the First Republic, however, brought an end to the colourful world of the peddlers and hawkers; together with the evolving industrialization and electrification the peddlers were replaced by “travelling agents” selling already different type of products (vacuum cleaners, sewing machines etc.).