The article highlights the author’s definition of “moral values” based upon the analysis of terms “morality”, “values”, in research literature. The author interprets moral values as semantic formations that are fixed in the consciousness of the individual. Moral values are based on unconditional acceptance of human beings, justice, mercy, understanding of one’s responsibility for someone’s well-being; moral values are shown through deeds that help harmonize the relationship between the individual and the society. Philosophical ideas that contain theoretical base of the development of moral values of the individual are analyzed. The essence and dynamics of the development of views on the process of moral values’ upbringing in foreign and native pedagogics are characterized. The article touches upon the subject of pedagogical conditions, methods and means of working with children that help to optimize the process of moral values upbringing in childhood. It is said, that with the development of pedagogy the attitude towards the child had been changing: up to the 18th century the child was the object of parenting, later the ideas of addressing the child as the subject of the educational process and teaching process should be carried out based on cooperation of the adult and children. Among the pedagogical conditions of moral values upbringing the main ones are the following: the basis of education is the approval of the value of the human, social environment should be an example of virtuous activity and stimulate the child, moral education is carried out in integrity with intellectual and aesthetic education, in the educational process, it is important to shape not only the moral consciousness and behavior but also moral sentiments and motives for deeds. The article deals with methods of moral upbringing: the method of example, the method of admonition, the method of explanation, the method of exercise in good deeds, the method of demand, the method of prohibition of physical punishment. Among the means of education in the history of pedagogy much attention is paid to moderate discipline, the authority of adults, the unconditional love to the child, fairy tale, beauty and the incorporation in different activities, especially in the game.