The article touches upon complex and highly polemical issues of Kant’s anthropology. In our opinion, the position of the German philosopher can be clearly identified in different variants of anthropological discourse; it is not only pragmatic anthropology that philosopher taught his students but also other variants of human research - physical anthropology, moral anthropology. The latter, as it is known, is possible because a person has not only empirical but also intelligible nature. In addition, in one of his remarks Kant also wrote about so-called transcendental anthropology, though he is not unwrapped this idea in some more or less valid theoretical structure. In his article, relying on the modern interpretation of Kant’s vision of anthropology as a transcendental science about a person, we are trying to identify the conceptual possibility of this idea, figure out whether it is the basic principle of critical philosophy.