Best practice in bank corporate governance: The case of Islamic banks
Languages of publication
Islamic banks are growing rapidly with annual growth rates of 17.6% between 2009 to 2013 and 19.7% from 2014 to date. This level of growth is projected to continue into the future. Islamic banks now operate in more than 75 countries with a value of approximately $920 trillion of bank assets. Islamic banks are increasingly being seen as good long-term value propositions and are serving both Muslim and non-Muslim customers across international markets. Despite the rapid growth in Islamic finance, the underpinning corporate governance rules and regulations are at an embryonic stage of development with little attention having been paid to them. The purpose of this paper is to help fill that gap by exploring a conceptual model of corporate governance for Islamic banks based on both Islamic finance principles while fused with elements of corporate governance standards from Western theories and codes, primarily the UK, and thereby ensure that good governance is in place in Islamic banks. The paper links the predominant corporate governance theories of Principal/Agent, Stakeholder and Stewardship with practice based corporate governance codes and explores the potential of applying stewardship theory to Islamic banks. Islamic principles emphasis is on real assets rather than debt as is the case in Western Banks and as a consequence this paper offers the conclusion that the more prudent approach to banking used by Islamic banks could be used as a model for Western banks and thereby deliver a more sustainable future and maintain confidence in banks and substitute for the need for taxpayer support, such as the guaranteed deposit scheme, which acts as a backstop under the Western approach.
- Adams, R. B. (2016). Women on boards: The superheroes of tomorrow? ECGI Finance Working Paper no 466/2016, 1–55.
- Adams, R. B. & Ferreira, D. (2009). Women in the boardroom and their impact on governance and performance. Journal of Financial Economics, 94(2), 291–309.
- Adams, R. B., Haan, J., Terjesen, S. & Ees, H. van (2015). Board diversity: Moving the field forward. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 23(2), 77–82.
- Akaah, I. P. (1989). Differences in research ethics judgments between male and female. Journal of Business Ethics, 8(5), 375–381.
- Anderson, R. C., Reeb, D. M., Upadhyay, A. & Zhao, W. (2011). The economics of director heterogeneity. Financial Management, 40(1), 5–38.
- Arfken, D. E., Bellar, S. L. & Helms, M. M. (2004). The ultimate glass ceiling revisited: The presence of women on corporate boards. Journal of Business Ethics, 50(2), 177–186.
- Auditor General Report Canada. (2015). Report 1 – implementing gender-based analysis. Office of the Auditor General of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_201602_01_e_41058.html#hd2c
- Ben-Amar, W., Chang, M. & McIlkenny, P. (2017). Board gender diversity and corporate response to sustainability initiatives: Evidence from the Carbon Disclosure Project. Journal of Business Ethics, 142, 369–383. doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2759-1
- Bernardi, R. A. & Arnold, D. F. (1997). Examination of moral development within public accounting by gender, staff level, and firms. Contemporary Accounting Research, 14(4), 653–668.
- Bohren, O. & Staubo, S. (2016). Mandatory gender balance and board independence. European Financial Management, 22(1), 3–30.
- Bonn, I., Yoshikawa, T. & Phan, P. H. (2004). Effects of board structure on firm performance: A comparison between Japan and Australia. Asian Business & Management, 3, 105–125.
- Brown, D. A. H., Brown, D. L. & Anastasopoulos, V. (2002). Women on boards: Not just the right thing ...but the “bright” thing. Ottawa: The Conference Board of Canada.
- Campbell, K. & Minguez-Vera, A. (2008). Gender diversity in the boardroom and firm financial performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(3), 435–451.
- Canadian Gender and Good Governance Alliance. (2017). Directors playbook. Canadian Gender and Good Governance Alliance. Retrieved from https://www.cggga.ca/about
- Carter, D. A., Simkins, B. J. & Simpson, W. G. (2003). Corporate governance, board diversity and firm value. The Financial Review, 38(1), 33–53.
- Catalyst Inc. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/women-management
- Chen, J., Leung, W.S., Goergen, M. (2017). The impact of board gender composition on dividend payouts. Journal of Corporate Finance, 43, 86–105.
- Chen, S., Ni, X. & Tong, J. Y. (2016). Gender diversity in the boardroom and risk management: A case of R&D investment. Journal of Business Ethics, 136, 599–621.
- Chhokar, S. J., Brodbeck, F. C. & House, R. J. (2007). Culture and leadership across the world: The GLOBE book of in-depth studies of 25 societies. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Eribaum Associate, Publishers.
- Conference Board of Canada. (2017). Annual report card. The Conference Board of Canada. Published by Canadian Board Diversity Council, www.boarddiversity.ca
- Davies, E. M. (2011). Women on boards. Department for Business Innovation and Skills. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/news/women-on-boards
- Davies, E. M. (2014). Women on boards Davies Review Annual Report 2014. Department for Business Innovation and Skills. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/women-on-boards-2014-third-annual-review
- De Cabo, R. M., Gimeno, R. & Nieto, M. J. (2012). Gender diversity on European bank’s boards of directors. Journal of Business Ethics, 109(2), 145–162.
- Dhir, A. A. (2015). Norway’s socio-legal journey: A qualitative study of boardroom diversity quotas. Osgoode Hall Law School, 65(10), Issue 15., pp 1-35.
- Ellwood, S. M. & Garcia-Lacalle, J. (2018). New development: Women
- with altitude-exploring the influence of female presence and leadership on
- boards of directors. Public Money and Management, 38(1), 73–78. doi:
- Elstad, B. & Ladegard, G. (2010). Women on corporate boards: Key influencers or tokens? Journal of Management and Governance, 14(1), 1–21.
- Engelstad, F., Teigen, M. (2012). Firms, boards and gender quotas: Comparative perspectives. UK: Emerald Publishers.
- Erhardt, N. L., Werbel, J. D. & Shrader, C. B. (2003). Board of director diversity and firm financial performance. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 11(2), 102–111.
- European Commission (EC). (2012). EC proposed directive: Corporate boards quota: COM(2012) 614. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/justice/genderequality/files/womenonboards/directive_quotas_en.pdf
- Evgeniou, T. & Vermaelen, T. (2016). Share buybacks and gender diversity. Instead Working Paper Series,1–45.Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2814042
- Evans, G.L. (2013). Culture research and corporate boards. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 3(5), 1–10.
- Evans, G.L. (2014). A mega review of cultural studies: Linking leadership to corporate governance. Poznan University of Economics Review, 13(1), 76–126.
- Fagan, C. & Rubery, J. (2018). Advancing gender equality through European employment policy: The impact of the UK’s EU membership and the risks of Brexit. Social Policy and Society, 17(2), 297–317. Retrieved from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
- Farrell, K. A. & Hersch, P. L. (2005). Additions to corporate boards: The effect of gender. Journal of Corporate Finance, 11(1–2), 85–106.
- Fenwick & West. (2016). Gender diversity in Silicon Valley, a comparison of Silicon Valley public companies and large public companies. Fenwick & West LLP.
- Francoeur, C., Labelle, R. & Sinclair-Desgagne´, B. (2008). Gender diversity in corporate governance and top management. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(1), 83–95.
- Franke, G. R., Crown, D. F. & Spake, D. F. (1997). Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: A social role theory perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 920–934.
- Fuqua, D. R. & Newman, J. L. (2006). Moral and ethical issues in human systems. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 58(4), 206–215.
- Government of Canada. (2017). Consolidated financial information for crown corporations (Annual Report 2016–2017; in thousands of dollars). Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/treasury-board-secretariat/services/reporting-government-spending/inventory-government-organizations/consolidated-financial-information-crown-corporations-annual-report-2016-2017.html
- Government of Canada. (2018a). Budget 2018’s gender results framework. Retrieved from https://www.budget.gc.ca/2018/docs/plan/chap-05-en.html
- Government of Canada. (2018b). Department and agencies. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/government/dept.html
- Goyal, R., Kakabadse, N. & Kakabadse, A. (2018). Achieving gender balance on British boards with the soft-law approach: Directors’ perspective. Journal of Business Diversity, 18(1), 29–39.
- Gul, F. A., Srinidhi, B. & Ng, A. C. (2011). Does board gender diversity improve the informativeness of stock prices? Journal of Accounting and Economics, 51(3), 314–338.
- Hansen, E., Conroy, K., Toppinen, A., Bull, L., Kutnar, A. & Panwar, R. (2016). Does gender diversity in forest sector companies matter? National Research Centre (NRC) Research Press, 46, 1255–1263.
- Harjoto, M., Laksmana, I. & Lee, R. (2015). Board diversity and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 132, 641–660.
- Harrison, D. A. & Klein, K. J. (2007). What’s the difference? Diversity constructs as separation, variety, or disparity in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1199–1228.
- Hillman, J.A. (2015). Board diversity: Beginning to unpeel the onion. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 23(2), 104–107.
- Hofstede, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(2), 286–316.
- Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81–94.
- House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., Gupta, V. & GLOBE Associates. (2004). Culture, leadership and organizations: The Globe study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Ingley, C. B. & Van der Walt, N. T. (2003). Board configuration: Building better boards. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 3(4), 5–17.
- Institute of Directors, (ICD). (2017). All talk no action? Considering the effects of CSA disclosure amendments on the representation of women on S&P/TSX 60 Companies. Rothman School of Management, ICD publication
- Joecks, J., Pull, K. & Vetter, K. (2013). Gender diversity in the boardroom and firm performance: What exactly constitutes a “critical mass?” J Bus Ethics, 118, 61–72.
- Kitchener, K. S. & Anderson, S. K. (2011). Foundations of ethical, practice, research, and teaching in psychology and counseling (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
- Konadu, R. (2017) Gender diversity imp-act on corporate social responsibility (CSR) and Greenhouse Gas emissions in the UK, Economic and Business Review, Vol. 3, (17), no. 1, pp. 127-148. http://www.ebr.edu.pl/volume17/issue1
- Krishnan, G. V. & Parsons, L. M. (2007). Getting to the bottom line: An exploration of gender and earnings quality. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(1–2), 65–76.
- Labelle, R., Makni Gargouri, R. & Francoeur, C. (2010). Ethics, diversity management, and financial reporting quality. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(2), 335–353.
- LeBlanc, R. (2016). The handbook of board governance: A comprehensive guide for public, private, and not for profit board member. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Inc.
- Leszczynska, M. (2018). Mandatory quotas for women on boards of directors in the European Union: Harmful to or good for company performance. European Business Organization Law Review, 19, 35–61.
- Li, J., Zhao, F., Chen, S., Jiang W., Liu T., Shi S. (2017). Gender diversity on boards and firms’ environmental policy. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26, 306–315.
- MacDougall, A., Valley, J., Adler, J., Bettel, C., Param, A., Schmidt, J. Sigurdson, A., Stachan, T., Suppa, O. (2017) 2017 Diversity Disclosure Practices, Women in leadership roles at TSX-listed companies, Published by Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP.
- Newman, J. L., Gray, E. A. & Fuqua, D. R. (1996). Beyond ethical decision making. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 48(4), 230–236
- Nielsen, S., Huse, M. (2010). The contribution of women on boards of directors: Going beyond the surface. Corporate Governance Review, 18(2), 136–14.
- Ning, Y.; Xiao, Z., Lee, J. (2017). Shareholders and managers: Who care more about corporate diversity and employee benefits? Journal of Management and Governance, 21, 93–118. doi:10,1007/s10997-015-9335-z
- OECD. (2018). Gender equality in Canada: Mainstreaming, governance and budgeting. Paris: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789260301108.en
- Ouedraogo, A. (2018) Determinants of under-representation of Women on Boards of Directors: an exploratory study of African public and private firms, Economic and Business Review, Vol4 (18), No. 2, pp.98-113. http://www.ebr.edu.pl/pub/2018_2_98.pdf
- Pasaribu, P. (2017). Female directors and firm performance: Evidence from UK listed firms. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, 19(2), 145–166.
- Peterson, C. A. & Philpot, J. (2007). Women’s role on US fortune 500 boards: Director expertise and committee memberships. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(2), 177–196.
- Post, C., Byron, K. (2015). Women on boards and firm performance: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 58(5), 1546–1571.
- Potvin, D. A., Burdfield-Steel, E., Potvin, J. & Heap, S. M. (2018). Diversity begets diversity: A global perspective on gender equality in scientific society leadership. PLoS ONE, 13(5), E0197280. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0197280.
- Proudman, B. (2017). Gender parity by 2055 America cannot afford to wait that long. Leadership Excellence Essentials, HR.com, 1.
- Pucheta-Martinez, M. C. & Bel-Oms, I. (2016). The board of directors and dividend policy: The effect of gender diversity. Industrial and Corporate Change, 25(3), 523–547. Dpo”101093/icc/dtv040
Publication order reference