Zamek Żupny w Wieliczce Centrum administracji przedsiębiorstwa solnego od XIII wieku
Saltworks Castle in Wieliczka. Administration Centre of Salt Enterprise since 13th century
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The Wieliczka Saltworks Castle had been developing since 13th century in direct vicinity of a shaft excavated in search for salt. It is an example of medieval defensive architecture directly connected with the history of the state mining enterprise constituted by Cracow Saltworks in pre-partition Poland. Salt mines, with the salt works and mines in Wieliczka and Bochnia under one management, were the biggest Polish enterprise and one of the biggest in Europe. The Castle remained the office of the management until 1945, when its central part was destroyed by bombs. After renovation, the Castle houses the Cracow Saltworks Museum Wieliczka, which conducts studies on salt heritage on the basis of historical book collection, salt works archives, and a valuable salt works cartographic resource. The castle complex comprises three main buildings: the central one, the so-called House Among Salt Mine (13th-17th, 20th century), housing a magnificent Gothic room with reconstructed vault leaned on the middle pillar; north one, Salt Mine House (erected in 14th-15th century, using the rampart from the end of 13th century, rebuilt in 16th-20th century), and south one (1834-36, 20th century). The layout includes also a reserve of mining shaft from the mid-13th century, secured ruins of salt mine kitchen, fragments of ramparts with a tower. Remained facilities of the Saltworks Castle constitute a unique unit, whose historical values are important as global heritage, since they are an interesting example of medieval architecture, changed in the Renaissance, baroque, and more recent times. Atypical character of the castle whose functions were mainly economic and administrative, and also representative, and to a lesser extent residential, makes it an extraordinary piece of architecture. There are no such layouts in Poland, and the long, a few-hundred-year period of direct relationship with an industrial enterprise distinguishes the Wieliczka facility also when compared to the parse, similar and remained European centres. The article conducts a comparative analysis of in particular buildings in Slovakia, Austria, and France.
- historyk sztuki, kustosz w Dziale Sztuki i Etnografii Muzeum Żup Krakowskich w Wieliczce. Absolwentka Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego i studiów podyplomowych Akademia Dziedzictwa. Autorka wystaw i publikacji, dotyczących zwłaszcza dziedzictwa Wieliczki i Bochni, m.in. architektury salinarnej. W 2010 r. członek grupy roboczej opracowującej wniosek o rozszerzenie wpisu Kopalni Soli w Wieliczce na Liście Światowego Dziedzictwa UNESCO.
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