Nowe perspektywy badań zabytkowej architektury drewnianej
New Prospects in the Research into Wooden Historic Architecture
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The issue of double wall construction of wooden historic architecture, recently introduced into the academic circulation, critically verifies the construction typology of old wooden building. The double wall construction formula defines a peculiar structure of perimeter walls, bringing side by side the framework and log constructions. Such is the construction system used in the walls of some dozens of Greater Poland wooden churches from the 17th-18th centuries, which have so far been falsely classified as either log or frame structures. The double wall construction was created either straight away (which was the usual way), or as the result of a framework structure being added to the skeleton of an older building. The first displays varied mutual relations of the framework and log systems: from the autonomous arrangement put side by side to the ones integrated in one frame. Both wall construction systems (with the framework always from the inside) usually adhere or are separated by several centimeters. Roof truss beams rest either simultaneously on caps of the frame and the skeleton, or just on the cap of frame. In the latter case, the construction system better fits the definition criteria of the post-supported construction and is classified by the Author as the post-supported system; meanwhile, the system in which the roof load-bearing function is exerted by the logs and the framework is qualified as quasi- post-supported. The structure that combines the log and framework construction within one frame is referred to as frame-and-log. Here the posts strengthened from the exterior with spandrel beams and struts, are at the same time uprights with grooves hollowed from the side of the interior into which planks are inserted, tightly ‘filling’ the spans and forming the wall face. Double wall constructions with a framework added subsequently is most often the trait of the quasi-post-supported system, yet solutions of the post-supported type have also appeared. The double wall construction in wooden sacral architecture in Greater Poland has proved to be not so much a regional, as a universal question, rooted in the century-long guild tradition of European craftsmanship. It is related to the yet unsolved issues of the genesis, function, and development of the post-supported construction. The fact that structural solutions that can be classified as the post-supported construction existed in sacral architecture in the 17th18th centuries defies such hypotheses of the postsupported construction coming to existence as, e.g. the theory of ‘shocks’ (weaving workshops) or the theory of a ‘wrinkling arcade. The post-supported and quasi-post-supported constructions of Catholic and Protestant churches in Greater Poland, (together with some non-extant 17th-18th-century quasi-postsupported synagogues) challenges the belief, wellrooted in literature, that post-supported construction was used only in secular buildings. It also opposes the assumption of the post-supported constructions developing linearly. However, the occurrence of frame-and-log systems in Greater Poland churches in the 17th-18th centuries urge us to verify the so-far ascertained territorial range and evolution of the construction defined in German literature on the subject as Bundwerk.
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