Barriers to the development of spin-offs. A fuzzy-set-theoretic approach
Languages of publication
University spin-offs have idiosyncratic strengths in comparison to other new firms. However, evidence also shows that Polish university spin-offs have a low survival rate, and only a small percent of them grow into sustainable businesses. The purpose of this paper is to carry out an empirical study to determine the nature of barriers to the growth of Polish university spin-offs, in order to address the two major research questions considered by this paper: what are the major barriers to growth, and which combinations of these barriers have the greatest impact on the performance of the university spin-offs under study? Firstly, this paper attempts to explore these research questions through a literature review and pilot interviews, based on which a questionnaire was developed. Secondly, this study attempts to address the research questions through a fuzzy-set-theoretic approach by using a software package, such as fs/QCA- fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. This paper identifies six key groups of barriers to the growth of university spin-offs in Poland, namely financial, competence, psychological, organizational, informational and formal barriers. Moreover, four alternative configurations of key groups of barriers to the growth of spin-offs that lead to low performance among the organizations examined are distinguished using fs/QCA. This problem is interesting not only from a scientific, but also a practical, point of view, pointing out the need for increased attention, not only from academic entrepreneurs themselves, but also for greater effort from universities and the government to cultivate university spin-offs. Most importantly, simultaneous action in all of these directions is necessary. The continuation of such research is also important, which will consider, on the one hand, a larger sample of firms, and, on the other hand, the results achieved so far and their re-conceptualization.
- ANTOMCIC B., HISRICH R.D., Intrapreneurship: construct refinement and cross-cultural validation, J. Bus. Vent., 2001, 16, 495–528.
- BANERSKI G., GRYZIK A., MATUSIAK K.B., MAŻEWSKA M., STAWASZ E., Academic entrepreneurship (the development of spin-off and spin-out firms). The need for training aimed at supporting its development, Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości, Warsaw 2009 (in Polish).
- BĄKOWSKI A., MAŻEWSKA M., Centres of innovation and entrepreneurship in Poland, Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości, Warsaw 2012, 1–192 (in Polish).
- CALLAN B., Generating Spin-offs: Evidence from Across the OECD, [In:] STI Review, Special Issue on Fostering High-Tech Spin-Offs, A Public Strategy for Innovation, No. 26, 2000.
- CAREN N., PANOFSKY A., TQCA. A technique for adding temporality to qualitative comparative analysis, Soc. Meth. Res., 2005, 34 (2) 147–172.
- CLARYSSE B., MORAY N., A process study of entrepreneurial team formation. The case of a researchbased spin-off, J. Bus. Vent., 2004, 19 (1), 55–79.
- CLARYSSE B., WRIGHT M., LOCKETT A., VAN DE VELDE E., VOHORA A., Spinning out new ventures: a typology of incubation strategies from European research institutions, J. Bus. Vent., 2005, 20 (2), 183–216.
- COLOMBO M.G., PIVA E., Strengths and weaknesses of academic startups. A conceptual model, IEEE Trans. Eng. Manage., 2006, 55 (1), 37–49.
- FISS P., Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research, Acad. Manage. J., 2011, 54 (2), 393–420.
- GRĘBOSZ M., MAKOWSKA A., KASIECZKA-BURNECKA M., Report from a study aimed at identifying the internal and external barriers constraining academic entrepreneurship, Polska Izba Gospodarcza Zaawansowanych Technologii, Warsaw 2010, 1–79 (in Polish).
- KWIOTKOWSKA A., Organizational configurations of academic spin-offs, Difin, Warsaw 2015 (in Polish).
- LOCKETT A., WRIGHT M., Resources, capabilities, risk capital and the creation of university spin-out companies, Research Policy, 2005, 34 (7), 1043–1057.
- The system of technology transfer and commercialisation of knowledge in Poland. Driving forces and barriers, K. Matusiak, J. Guliński (Eds.), Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości, Warsaw 2010, 1–56 (in Polish).
- MEYER A., TSUI A., HININGS C.R., Configurational approaches to organizational analysis, Acad. Manage. J., 1993, 36, 1175–1195.
- MUSTAR P., RENAULT M., COLOMBO M.G., PIVA E., FONTES M., LOCKETT A., WRIGHT M., CLARYSSE B., MORAY N., Conceptualising the heterogeneity of research-based spin-offs: a multi-dimensional taxonomy, Res. Pol., 2006, 35 (2), 289–308.
- PIRNAY F., SURLEMONT B., NLEMVO F., Toward a typology of university spin-offs, Small Bus. Econ., 2000, 21, 355–369.
- RAGIN C.C., Fuzzy-Set Social Science, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2000.
- RAGIN C.C., Redesigning Social Inquiry: Fuzzy Sets and Beyond, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2008.
- RAGIN C.C., Set relations in social research: evaluating their consistency and coverage, Pol. Anal., 2006, 14, 291–310.
- RAGIN C.C., The Comparative Method. Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies, University of California Press, Barkley 1987.
- RAGIN C.C., FISS P., Net effects versus configurations: an empirical demonstration, [In:] C.C. Ragin (Ed.), Redesigning Social Inquiry, Vol. 1, University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2008, 190–212.
- RAGIN C.C., SONNETT J., Between complexity and parsimony. Limited diversity, counterfactual cases, and comparative analysis, Working paper posted at http://www.compasss.org/WP.htm, 2004.
- TAMOWICZ P., Academic entrepreneurship. Spin-off firms in Poland, Polska Agencja Rozwoju Przedsiębiorczości, Warsaw 2006, 1–56.
- VOHORA A., WRIGHT M., LOCKETT A., Critical junctures in the development of university high-tech spinout companies, Res. Policy, 2004, 33 (1), 147–175.
- ZHOU Y., XU G., SU J., MINSHALL T., Barriers to entrepreneurial growth. An empirical study on university spin-offs in China, J. Sci. Techn. Policy China, 2011, 2 (3), 277–294.
- WRIGHT M., BIRLEY S., Entrepreneurship and university technology transfer, J. Technol. Trans., 2004, 29 (3, 4), 235–246.
Publication order reference