The aim of this paper is to identify the likely impact of one of the family policy instruments in Poland, the “Family 500+” programme. The analyses were focused on the supply side of the labour market. The demand side, without neglecting it, was treated as one of the determinants of labour supply. As we are still lacking in reliable research, as far as comprehensive research in this area is concerned, the analysis is based on the knowledge contained in the source literature and the research experience of the author. The article presents elements of family policy in Poland, factors determining the number of labour resources and their professional activity, the programme “Family 500+” and its influence on the Polish labour market in the short term, as well as the probable impact in the medium term.