Marie Skłodowska (1867–1934) spent her childhood and youth in Poland. During and after her studies she lived and worked in France. Many circumstances combined, to give her two homelands. Her discoveries for the benefi t of mankind, however, made her a citizen of the whole world. The aim of this paper was to underline relations of Marie Skłodowska -Curie with Poland – especially with the scientific circles in Krakow. Marie was born in Warsaw, the fi fth child of the patriotic Skłodowski family. She graduated with honors and received a gold medal from the state gymnasium in Warsaw at the age of 15. She wanted to continue her education, but due to imprudent investments by her father the Skłodowskis experienced fi nancial trouble, so Maria began giving private lessons, and next accepted a better -paid post of a governess in a village far away from home. In Autobiography she wrote: Since my duties with my pupils did not take up all my time, I organized a small class for the children of the village who could not be educated under the Russian government. […] Even this innocent work presented danger, as all initiative of this kind was forbidden by the government and might bring imprisonment or deportation to Siberia. After more than three years’ work as a governess, she came back to Warsaw, gave private lessons and saw to her own education. In the Laboratory of Industry and Agriculture Museum she mastered the fundamentals of chemical analysis and became acquainted with scientific research work. In November 1891, at the age of 24, she left for Paris. On 3 November 1891 she began studies at the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at the Sorbonne. Despite some gaps in her knowledge, she was able to pass all her examinations and graduate in the fi rst rank as “licenciée en sciences physiques” in 1893, and in the second rank as “licenciée en sciences mathématiques” in 1894. Driven by the sense of duty, which she had learned at home (she was convinced that she should work as a teacher in her homeland), Marie went to Krakow and tried to find a job in the physics laboratories of the Jagiellonian University. Scientists from Krakow worked with the best laboratories in London, GÖttingen and Paris. At that time, however, women were not allowed even to study at the Jagiellonian University. In the academic year 1894/1995 only three women (pharmacists) were allowed to att end university lectures. After having visited Krakow Marie realized that there was no suitable position for her at Polish Universities. Professor August Witkowski, who wanted to help her, was not even able to off er her the position of assistant to his Chair of Physics at the Jagiellonian University. “She would have had to be excluded from academic life, without which she would not have had the opportunity to apply her knowledge and skills and satisfy her justifi able ambitions. This is why she decided to choose science and Pierre Curie.” In autumn 1894 Marie came back to Paris, where in 1895 she married Pierre Curie – a French physicist. At the end of 1897 Marie became interested in the research of Henri Becquerel, who had noticed that uranium salts emitt ed special rays which, as opposed to common light rays, could penetrate through black paper and discharge an electroscope. Instead of an electroscope she used newly elaborated electrometer. Laborious work began: hundreds of measurements, chemical experiments and new results. While examining rays of uranium ores, she observed an interesting phenomenon: the radiation’s intensity was not always proportional to the content of uranium in the ore. After a few months Pierre joined Marie and the Curies managed to separate from pitchblende a substance accompanying bismuth which displayed unique chemical features and was much more active than uranium. In July 1898 they announced the discovery of a new element, which they named POLONIUM in honor of Marie’s homeland. She hoped that naming the new element after her native country would bring world att ention to its lost independence. In December 1898, they announced the discovery of another radioactive element – radium. All their work was carried out in extremely poor conditions, with no hope of improvement. In 1900 a big scientifi c conference was organized in Krakow – 9th Congress of Polish Physicians and Naturalists. Some Polish scientists working abroad were invited. Among them was also Marie Curie from Paris. Even though she was not able to come, she sent her contribution and asked prof. August Witkowski to read her lecture in the chemical section of the Congress. She also sent few samples containing radium compound to make some demonstrations. After the Congress Maria wished, these samples were given to the Chair of Physics at the Jagiellonian University. In 1903, Marie defended her doctoral thesis. A copy of her doctoral dissertation with inscription writt en by Marie Curie for prof. Witkowski was among the books which belonged to him. In the same year Maria, together with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, received the Nobel Prize in physics. In 1904 her thesis appeared on the market in Polish translation. On 29 June 1908 professors Witkowski and Natanson submitt ed to the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Krakow a request to elect Marie Curie as an active, foreign member of the Academy. The election took place on 21 May, 1909, and after its approval by the higher instances, the authorities of the Academy sent to Marie a lett er with this information. She was the fi rst woman among the members of the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Krakow. Until 1931 she was the only woman in this academic society. After the celebrations connected with the 25 anniversary of discovery of radium and polonium in Paris, senate of the Jagiellonian University awarded Marie Curie with two doctorates honoris causa: one in philosophy, another one in medicine. Marie was not able to come to Krakow, so prof. Kazimierz Morawski took these diplomas and handed them to Marie in Paris. In December 1924 Marie Curie wrote letters to the deans of Faculty of Philosophy and Faculty of Medicine, and to the rector of the Jagiellonian University with gratitude for these honors. The only scientist from Krakow who visited and worked for a short time in the Curie laboratory in Paris was a botanist Kazimierz Stefan Rouppert (1885–1963). He worked there for a few weeks in 1926. The results were published in a paper entitled Sur l’action du rayonnement des corps radioactifs sur les perlules végétales. Some of scientists in Krakow were interested in investigation of radium or in application of compounds of this element in medicine. They contacted Marie Curie, wrote to her and received from her lett ers. Among them were: Tadeusz Estreicher, Karol Olszewski, Walery Jaworski, Marian Smoluchowski, Władysław Natanson, Leon Marchlewski, Antoni Hoborski, Mieczysław Jeżewski, Odo Bujwid, Aleksander Rosner, Henryk Wachtel, authorities of Jagiellonian University and Academy of Arts and Sciences. Marie Skłodowska -Curie was and still is, a worldwide hero. Matt ers of science were always of great value for this modest personality. She was also a great Pole, who took care of the development and prosperity of her homeland. When she was asked to write a few words on the occasion of the tenth anniversary of Poland’s regained independence, she wrote: – to develop scientific laboratories, which Pasteur called “sacred shrines of mankind,” – to take care of those who work for science, craving knowledge, in order to obtain workers for the future, – to create conditions so that innate talents and precious gifts might be realized and serve the idea – means to lead the society along the path of development of power, both spiritual and material.