Rozdíly v celkovém sebepojetí u dětí a adolescentů České republiky podle věku a pohlaví
Differences in self-concept in children and adolescents in the Czech Republic based on their age and sex
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Problem: The article presents a study of the differences in self-concept of children and adolescents based on their sex and age. Self-concept is an integral part of each personality. The level of self-concept in pupils may reflect significantly on their overall life satisfaction as well as influence their subjective success (individually experienced) and their objective success (evaluated externally). Methods: The diagnostic tool used was the Czech adaptation of Children's and adolescents self-concept scale PHCSCS-2 (Obereignerů et al., 2015). The original American version of Piers-Harris Children Self-concept Scale 2 (PHCSCS-2) is a 60-item self-report scale which comprises 7 areas of self-assessment. It includes the subscale of overall self-concept: Total Score (TOT) - which represents the level of the respondent’s overall self-concept and six subscales evaluating specific areas of self-concept: Behavioural Adjustment (BEH), Intellectual and School Status (INT), Physical Appearance and Attributes (PHY), Freedom from Anxiety (FRE), Popularity (POP), Happiness and Satisfaction (HAP). The Czech standardization which took place in recent years, respected all requirements for the conversion of a foreign diagnostic tool. The research group included 4901 pupils and students at primary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic aged 9-21. The group was divided into twelve groups based on sex and age - group 1 (9-10 years), group 2 (11-12 years), group 3 (13-14 years), group 4 (1516 years), group 5 (17-18 years), group 6 (19-21 years), equivalently for boys/men and girls/women. The study presents the differences of seven self-concept dimensions, as mentioned above (the Total Score and six subscales) in Self-Concept in Children and Adolescent based on sex. Most attention is paid to the Total Score (TOT) as a most reliable indicator. The study also reveals development curves of all six subscales of girls/women and boys/men based on age. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) in the results between sexes in Total Score (TOT) and four of self-concept dimensions - Behavioural Adjustment (BEH), Intellectual and School Status (INT), Freedom from Anxiety (FRE), Happiness and Satisfaction (HAP) - in the research group of 4901 Czech pupils and students were demonstrated by T-test. Statistically significant differences in the results between sexes in Total Score (TOT) in the age categories of 15-16 years and 17-18 years (p < 0.001) and significant difference in the results between sexes in the overall self-concept in the age category of 9-10 years (p < 0.05) in the research group of 4901 Czech pupils and students were also demonstrated by T-test. Discussion: Certain older studies quoted in the discussion do not show (contrary to our findings) any difference in the self-concept in respondents based on sex, other studies evaluate the differences as mild while other show differences that are not considered as clinically significant. As PHCSCS-2 is a newly standardized and prospectively applicable psychodiagnostic tool, further analyses will follow as well as outputs concerning the children and adolescent population in the Czech Republic and elsewhere. Practical application arising from the findings, however, consists in the necessity to approach children and adolescents in an individual manner, taking into account their age and sex (avoiding "measuring all children by the same yardstick"). In view of the significance of self-assessment for personality, in practice we consider as crucial to take into account in a more sensitive manner the things to which the children and adolescents are "more sensitive and vulnerable" as well as their sex. Conclusion: This article provides the first and partial results within an extensive research project of the team of the authors.
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