Funkce učitelských otázek ve výukové komunikaci na druhém stupni základní školy
Thefunction of teacher questioning in educational communication at lower secondary school
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This paper presents the results of an investigation of the function of teacher questioning in selected humanities subjects at the lower secondary school. The data set comprises video recordings of 32 taught lessons which are analysed using both quantative and qualitative procedures. The main aim of the research was to establish the functions performed by teacher questioning in educational communication. Further we were interested in the kinds of questions teachers use in selected subjects, how teachers use open and closed questions, and how questions differ in terms of the cognitive demand factor. The first part of the paper specifies what teacher questioning is, describes types of questions, and indicates their frequency in the lessons observed. In the second part of the paper we describe teacher questions in respect of their function in educational communication. Four types of educational sequences (reproduction, memorizing, discussion and production) are analysed in detail; by means of these sequences the effects are shown of the following: the use of closed and open questions with a lower cognitive demand factor, the absence of questions with a lower and higher cognitive demand factor, pauses in educational dialogue. In the conclusion we summarize the impact of teacher questioning on educational communication and formulate rules for the putting of teacher questions in respect of pupils’ cognitive work.
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