Speech activity as a means of realization of speech communication
The article presents the analysis of different approaches to understanding and definition of speech, as a research activity of our and foreign scientists. Since the organic relation of speech activity with communication activity is emphasized in all approaches, we have examined singly the traditions of studying the speech in communication. For the analysis of communication as a speech phenomenon we explore the generation mechanism and perception of speech messages for communication aims or for regulation and control of own activity. These mechanisms are considered on their phase structure. We have examined the act of procreation of speech saying by means of O. O. Leontyev’s conventional scheme, as his theory provides the choice of behavior strategy, it is flexible, allows different ways of operating with a saying at various stages of generation or speech perception. The model of perception and understanding the speech saying in the article is examined by means of I. O. Zimnaya’s theory; this scheme consists of two different components: the image of the original perception and identification of the formed image. The analysis of the afore cited mechanisms suggests that the acts of transmission and reception of speech message making the structure of speech activity, provide feedback and it is the main condition of speech communication. The approach that has been used in the article allowed us to conduct theoretical analysis of speech activity as a way to implement speech communication. It is concluded that the acts of sending and receiving voice messages that make up the structure of speech activity, providing feedback are the main conditions of verbal communication. All these processes are provided by different mechanisms, which are regulated by the brain, which, uniting in working condition form a functional speech system. Breaking the link between the mechanisms of generation and perception of speech communications at the level of the brain can cause aphasia, which destroys speech activity and makes verbal communication impossible. The correct mapping of the various components of speech activity with the corresponding anatomical areas of the brain that has been affected as a result of stroke, brain tumor or traumatic brain injury, changes the approach to the analysis of speech disorders in aphasia and helps to determine the most appropriate and effective ways of recovery process of verbal communication of individuals in this category.
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