Analiza instytucji i zmian instytucjonalnych A. Allana Schmida
A. Allan Schmid’s analysis of institutions and institutional change
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In recent decades there is a growing tendency in economics to question some concepts or even the whole paradigm dominant in economic science in the last century. Financial crisis which led to a considerable downturn in the economy in 2008−2009 has acted as an additional incentive to intensify this tendency. The debatable approach is known as neoclassical theory or neoclassical economics. The fact needs to be emphasised that a widening circle of critically-oriented scholars does not contend itself with pointing at the weaknesses of neoclassical economics. Their disapproval is accompanied by the attempts to establish a new analytical framework which would be free from the drawbacks of neoclassical theory and that can provide an alternative model of explaining the phenomena and processes taking place on economic level of social life. Researchers classified to institutional and behavioural economics, which still remains on the fringes of the orthodox approach, are particularly active in making the efforts of this kind. The aim of the article is to draw attention of Polish readers to the concept of A. Allan Schmid presented in his book entitled Conflict and Cooperation: Institutional and Behavioral Economics. Schmid’s work seems to be a significant step towards developing an alternative model of analysing economic phenomena and processes. The other point that is worth noticing is the fact that his concept has some interesting didactic values and could be recommended as an excellent supplementary item to a reading list proposed for economics courses. Relying on the ground of the New Institutional Economics (NIE), Schmid emphasis an interrelatedness between institutions and human behaviour. The fundamental significance of human behaviour for shaping institutions justifies invoking to scientific achievements of behavioural economics. Schmid tries to establish a model that could be applied not only to the analysis of an impact and significance of particular institutions on economic performance, but also to grasp the factors which seem to be important for changes in institutional structures. His solution is based on a three-stages model called SSP (situation – structure – performance). The first step consists in the delimitation of introductory conditions, the next is an analysis of institutional structure and the purpose of the last phase is to consider how this structure affects an allocation of benefits and losses of economic entities. The scheme is then consequently used for the analysis of a number of issues discussed in contemporary economic theory. Schmid competently avails himself of the concepts and conclusions expressed by the representatives of institutional and behavioural economics, which is understandable when his aim is taken into consideration. By so doing, Schmid not only shows complementarity of those two trends, but his approach, despite some weaknesses, could be treated also as a prolegomena to the synthesis of institutional and behavio
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