2018 | 36 English Version | 5-58
Article title

Norwid’s way to Hafiz

Title variants
Languages of publication
In Norwid’s works one can find distant echoes of the Sufi concepts. One of the threads linking this Polish poet to the current of Muslim mysticism is his fascination with Hafiz’s Divan (and secondly – the person of Abd el-Kader) manifesting itself in Pisma wszystkie. The Persian poet and mystic is mentioned in the works of the Polish author five times (twice in letters and three times in poems: Assunta, Emil na Gozdawiu and A Dorio ad Phrygium). It is quite doubtful that Norwid became acquainted with philarete’s translations of Hafiz’s ghazals (Sękowski, Wiernikowski, Chodźko) in his pre-emigration (Warsaw) period. It was rather the full German translations of Divan (Purgstall and others) and numerous thematic references in the works of German Romantics (Goethe, Heine) that opened to him the gates to Hafiz’s world. Norwid could have been exposed to these during his stay in Berlin in 1846 while attending a query at the University Library there. It cannot be ruled out that also the reading of Emerson’s works during his American period (and later) could be his source of inspiration. The world of Hafiz’s lyric poetry could also spread open before Norwid owing to French translations, although their role was rather secondary, since in the 19th century they were relatively few (only 32 works were translated before Norwid’s death). The years of Parisian emigration provided many new opportunities to advance the know-ledge of Persian literature and culture. This was favoured not only by Norwid’s stay in Paris, but also by the presence, among Polish emigrants, of eminent iranologists with whom Norwid was in touch: Aleksander Chodźko and Wojciech Biberstein-Kazimirski (he worked together with Norwid’s cousin Michał Kleczkowski at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs). The height of Norwid fascination with Hafiz was in the 1870s, although many facts indicate that Promethidion might already have been inspired by Hafiz. The Sufi “alchemy of love” permeating the stanzas of Hafiz’s Divan found its reflection primarily in Assunta. Norwid took the motto for this poem probably from the French translation of A Grammar of the Persian Language by William Jones (translated by Garcin de Tassy in 1845), in which the couplet was among the examples of Persian syntax (the ghazal in which this couplet originated, was still not fully translated into French). In turn, the epigraph for Emil na Gozdawiu is probably a paraphrase of the ghazal translated into French by the same Jones and included in his Treatise on Oriental Poetry as Ode V. The choice of the epigraph to Emil... testifies to Norwid’s affiliation with an elite group of 19th-century erudite people who were able to get access to the religious dimension of the poetry by Hafiz, which generally remained hidden for the European readers of Divan at that time. A particularly original idea of the Polish poet was the evocation of a text from the area of cultural Islam (and not Christianity!) for polemics with the Rousseauean secular model of upbringing, and the juxtaposition of the secularised European mentality with the deep, unshakable religious sense of the Orient.
  • Alchemia miłości. Wybór myśli sufickich, compiled by D. and S. Fideler, transl. by B. Gałkowski, Warszawa 2012, pp. XIV-XVIII.
  • Al-MurabitS.A., Was Goethe a Muslim?, goethe.htm [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Arberry A.J. Hafiz, [in:] idem, Classical Persian Literature, London 1958, pp. 329-335.
  • Baildam J.D., Paradisal Love: Johann Gottfried Herder and the Song of Songs, Sheffield 1999.
  • Birkenbichl M., Die orientalischen Elemente in der Poesie Heinrich Heines’, [in:] Analecta Germanica für Hermann Paul, Amberg 1906, pp. 261-322.
  • Borchard D. in collaboration with A. Brajerska-Mazur, [in:] C. Norwid, Poems, New York: Archipelago Books, 2011.
  • BromsH., Two Studies at the Relations of Hāfiz and the West, “Studia Orientalia” 39(1968), [Helsinki], pp. 34-105.
  • Bürgel J. Ch., Goethe und Hafis, [in:] Drei Hafis Studien, Bern 1975, pp. 5-42.
  • Chezy A.L., Ode d’Hafiz, [in:] Medjnoun et Leila, Paris 1807, http://cdn.notesdumontroyal. com/document/85f.pdf [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Chodźko A., Poezje, St. Petersburg 1829, [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Chodźko A., Popular Poetry of Persia. Specimens of the popular poetry of Persia, orally collected and translated with philological and historical notes, London 1842.
  • Czerniawski A., [in:] C. Norwid, Selected Poems, London: Anvil Press Poetry, 2004.
  • Der Diwan des grossen lyrischen Dichters Hafis, vols. I-III, transl. by V. Rosenzweig-Schwannau, Wien 1858-1864.
  • Der Diwan des Schems-eddin Muhammed Hafis aus Schiras, transl. by G.H.F. Nesselmann, Berlin 1865.
  • Der Sänger von Schiras. Hafisische Lieder, transl. by F. M. von Bodenstedt, Berlin 1877.
  • Der Stinger von Schiras, Hafisische Lieder, Berlin 1880.
  • Die Lieder des Hafis, persisch, mit dem Commentare des Sudi Bosnevi, herausgegeben von Hermann Brockhaus, vols. I-III, published by F.A. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1854-1860, http://;view=1up;seq=963 [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Dywan perski, Antologia arcydzieł dawnej poezji perskiej, compiled by A. Lange, Sandomierz 2010.
  • Einboden J., Islam and Romanticism: Muslim Currents from Goethe to Emerson, London 2014,,+Persian+Literary+Influence+on+English+Literature:+With+Special+Reference+to+the+ineteenth+Century&source=bl&ots=uo_jZySQeJ&sig=iIikIooxNBN8iFpQu7B5NhUoKJk&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiT6PCKsqnLAhWkJJoKHSslD2cQ6AEILDAD#v=onepage&q=H.%20Javadi%2C%20Persian%20Literary%20Influence%20on%20English%20Literature%3A%20With%20Special%20Reference%20to%20the%20 Nineteenth%20Century&f=false [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Emerson R.W., Essay on Persian Poetry, [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Encyclopaedia iranica, [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Falakī M., Goethe und Hafis: Verstehen und Missverstehen in der Wechselbeziehung deutscher und persischer Kultur, Berlin 2013.
  • Fitzgerald E.E., The Letters of Edward Fitzgerald, eds. A.M. Terhune and A.B. Terhune, 4 vols., Princeton 1980.
  • Fomeshi B.M., Khojastehpour, A., A Poet Builds a Nation: Hafez as a Catalyst in Emerson’s Process of Developing American Literature, “Kata” 2014, vol. 16, no. 2, Petra Christian University, [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Gadamska-Serafin R., Norwid a świat arabsko-muzułmański – inspiracje i źródła, [in:] Kulturowy wymiar twórczości Norwida, eds. J.C. Moryc, R. Zajączkowski, Lublin 2016, pp. 39-98.
  • Gadamska-Serafin R., Norwid o genezie islamu i historii relacji chrześcijańsko-muzułmańskich, eds. M. Nalepa, G. Trościński, Rzeszów 2016, pp. 407-441.
  • Gadamska-Serafin R., Orient Norwida. Wybrane arabica/islamica literackie, [in:] Georomantyzm. Literatura-miejsce-środowisko, eds. E. Dąbrowicz, M. Lul, K. Sawicka-Mierzyńska, D. Zawadzka, Białystok 2015, pp. 306-336.
  • Gadamska-Serafin R., Ślady Hafiza w “Assuncie” Norwida, [in:] Między Wschodem a Zacho-dem. W poszukiwaniu źródeł i inspiracji, eds. A. Bednarczyk, M. Kubarek, M. Szatkowski, Toruń 2016, pp. 325-344.
  • Gazele wybrane Hafiza, transl. by A. Zajączkowski, Warszawa 1957.
  • Ginter-Frołow M., From armchair literates to art historians: the Polish collections of Persian manuscripts, [in:] The Shaping of Persian Art: Collections and Interpretations of the Art of Islamic Iran and Central Asia, Cambridge 2013, AAQBAJ&pg=PA52&lpg=PA52&dq=Manuscript+Of+A+Divan+Of+Hafiz+in+Poland& source=bl&ots=Hvxw1zDVOQ&sig=FRcwXU5LVvkPu3Kfbpt11xhEyGg&hl=pl&sa=X &ved=0ahUKEwiPh5CH1aLLAhWGYJoKHVIGCdcQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=Man uscript%20Of%20A%20Divan%20Of%20Hafiz%20in%20Poland&f=false [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Hâfezde Chiraz, Le Divân, Le Divân. Oeuvre lyrique d’un spirituel en Perse au XIVe siècle, transl. by Ch.-H. de Fouchécour, Paris 2006.
  • HafezzSzirazu, Wiersze, transl. by A. Kwiatkowski, [accessed 15 July 2016].
  • Hafis: eine Sammlung persischer Gedichte, Hamburg 1846.
  • Hafiz, Gazele, transl. by T. Filip, Kraków 1991.
  • Hafizof Shiraz, Selections from his Poems, translated from Persian, transl. by H. Bicknell, London 1875.
  • Hafiz, Wiersze, transl. by J. Krzyżowski, [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Hafiz, Wiersze miłosne, transl. by W. Dulęba, [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Hayati Ashtiani K., Les relations litteraires entre la France et la Perse de 1826 à 1897, Lyon 2004.
  • Herbin A. F.-J., Notice sur Khaudjah Hhafiz Al-Chyrazy, 00PkBGwC&pg=PA520&lpg=PA520&dq=Notice+sur+Hafiz&source=bl&ots=vIri6ktJ0 1&sig=gMdIgN7znFNkE1gwVWK3I-8A9fw&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiguOLm_af LAhWCYZoKHQJ7BgYQ6AEIQzAI#v=onepage&q=Notice%20sur%20Hafiz&f=false) [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Hindley J.H., Persian Lyrics or Scattered Poems from The Diwan-i-Hafiz, with paraphrases in verse and prose, a catalogue of the gazels as arranged in a manuscript of the works of Hafiz in the Chetham Library at Manchester, and other illustrations, London 1800, https://archive. org/details/persianlyricsors00hafi [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Ibn ‘Arabi, Traktat o miłości, transl. by J. Wronecka, Warszawa 2010.
  • Javadi H., Persian Literary Influence on English Literature: With Special Reference to the Nineteenth Century, Mazda Publishers, California 2005.
  • JonesW., A Grammar of the Persian Language, Oxford 1771.
  • JonesW., Histoire de Nader Chah, connusous le nom de Thahmas Kuli Khan, empereur de Perse, Traduited’un manuscript persan, par ordre de sa majesté, Le Roi de Dannemark, avec des notes chronologiques, historiques, géographiques et un Traité sur la Poésie Orientale, vol. II, London 1770.
  • JonesW., Poems Consisting Chiefly of Translations from the Asiatick Languages. To which are added two essays, Oxford 1772.
  • JonesW., The Persian Song, London 1771.
  • JonesW., Traité sur la poésie orientale par Mr Jones, member du college de l’Université a Oxford, Londre 1770.
  • Krasicki I., Hafiz, [in:] idem, Zbiór potrzebnieyszych wiadomości, porządkiem alfabetu ułożonych, vol. I, Warszawa–Lwów 1781, p. 346, a?id=267389&from=publication&showContent=true [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Krasnowolska A., Aleksander Chodźko (1804-1891) and His ‘Oriental’ Poems, “Folia Orientalia” 39(2003), pp. 71-81.
  • Krasnowolska A., Iranian Studies in Poland, “Iranian Studies” 1987, vol. 20/2-4, pp. 179- 221.
  • Liederblüten des Hafis, Hamburg 1846.
  • Littérature persane. Poésies d’Hâfiz, transl. by J.B. Grangeret de Lagrange, “Mercure Étranger” no. 7, Langues orientales, vol. II, Paris 1813, pp. 135-141, [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Majewska B., Gazele Hafiza w nieopublikowanym przekładzie Wiernikowskiego, “Przegląd Orientalistyczny” 1960, vol. 33, pp. 39-68.
  • Majewska B., Z zainteresowań romantyków polskich literaturą perską, [in:] Szkice z dziejów polskiej orientalistyki, ed. J. Reychman, Warszawa 1966, pp. 122-124.
  • Mikoś M., Polish Romantic Literature. An Anthology, Bloomington: Slavica Publishers Indiana University, 2002.
  • Münnich W.G., De poesia Persica, “Rocznik Towarzystwa Naukowego z Uniwersytetem Krakowskim połączonego” 1825, vol. 10, pp. 35-84 (Polish translation: O poezji perskiey: Ro zprawa Doktora Wilhelma Münnicha, transl. from Latin by A. Groza, “Dziennik Wileński” 1829, vol. 8, pp. 3-32).
  • Nicholson R.A., The Mystics of Islam, London 1914, htm [accessed 14 January 2017].
  • Nilchian E., Sufi – Romantic Self Loss: The Study of the Influence of Persian Sufism on English Romantic Poetry, University of Leicester 2011, Nilchian_PhD%20Thesis_2011.pdf [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Norwid C., Pisma wszystkie, vols. I-XI, compiled by J.W. Gomulicki, Warszawa 1971.
  • Norwid C., Poematy, vol. I, compiled by S. Sawicki, A. Cedro, Lublin 2009.
  • NottJ., Select Odes from the Persian Poet Hafez, translated into English verse with notes critical and explanatory by John Nott, London 1787, nepage&q&f=false [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Perraudin M., Heinrich Heine: Poetry in Context: a Study of “Buch der Lieder”, Berg 1989.
  • Persian lyrics, or Scattered poems, from the Diwan-i-Hafiz, with paraphrases in verse and prose, a catalogue of the gazels as arranged in manuscript of the works of Hafiz, in the Chetham library at Manchester, London 1800.
  • Pieśni miłosne Hafiza, selected and transl. by W. Dulęba, Kraków 1973.
  • Platen A. von, Nach bildungenaus dem Diwan des Hafis, [in:] idem, Gesammelte Werke in fünf Bänden, Stuttgart–Tübingen 1853, vol. II, pp. 334-355.
  • Quelques odes de Hafiz traduites pour la première fois en français par A. L.-M. Nicolas, Paris 1898, [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Radjaie A., Das profan-mystische Ghasel des Hafis in Rückerts Übersetzungen und in Goethes “Divan”, Würzburg 1998.
  • Reviczky K., Specimen poeseos Persicae: sive Muhammedis Schems-eddini notioris agnomine Haphyzi Ghazelae, sive odae sexdecim ex initio Divani depromptae: nunc primum latiniatate donatae, cum metaphrasi ligata & soluta, paraphrasi item ac notis, Vienna 1771.
  • Richardson J., A Specimen of Persian Poetry; or Odes of Hafez: with an English Translation and Paraphrase. Chiefly from the Specimen Poeseos Persicae os Baron Revizky, envoy from the Emperor of Germany to the Court of Poland. With storical and Grammatical Illustrations, and a Complete Analysis, for the Assistance of those who wish to study the Persian language, London 1774, Richardson_%28orientalist%29 [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Reychman J., Aleksander Chodźko, wielki orientalista polski (1804-1891), “Problemy” 1956, vol. 5, pp. 353-355.
  • Robinson S., A Century of the Ghazels, or a Hundred Odes, Selected and Translated from the Diwan of Hafiz, London 1875.
  • Schemsed-din HafisM., Der Diwan, vols. I-II, transl. by J. von Hammer-Purgstall, Verlag J.G. Cotta, Stuttgart–Tübingen 1812-1813.
  • Servan de Sugny E., Étude orientale, ou trois odes de Hafiz et une élégie de Saadi, poètes persans, traduites en vers francais… suivies de notes et éclaircissement, Genève 1852, gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Sękowski J., Literatura Wschodnia: Diwani Chodża Hafyz Szirazi: Zbiór poezji Chodży Hafyza z Szyrazu, sławnego rymotwórcy perskiego, “Dziennik Wileński” 1820, vol. 1/1, pp. 257- 272.
  • Sękowski J., Niektóre szczegóły o dzisiejszym stanie i zasadach wewnętrznego sprawowania potężnego państwa Iranu, “Dziennik Wileński” 1820, vol. 2, pp. 26-35.
  • Shah I., Droga sufich, transl. by T. Biedroń, Poznań 2009.
  • Shamel S., Goethe and Hafiz: poetry and history in the “West-östlicher Divan”, Oxford 2013. London 1994.
  • Shams-Yaddolahi Z., Le retentissement de la poésie de Hâfez en France – réception et traduction, Uppsala 2002, pp. 45-55 [a list of French translations of Hafiz’s works from the 18th and 19th centuries].
  • Shams-Yaddolahi, Z., L’imagination poétique dans l’oeuvre lyrique de Hâfez, thèse de doctorat, Strasbourg1980.
  • Sharafuddin M., Islam and romantic orientalism: literary encounters with the Orient, Tauris, Skarżyńska-Bocheńska K., Hafiz, [in:] Mały słownik kultury świata arabskiego, ed. J. Bielawski, Warszawa 1971, p. 183.
  • Sharafuddin M.A., Islam and Romanticism: A Study of Orientalism in English Verse Narrative, 1798-1817, University of York 1988.
  • Szkice z dziejów polskiej orientalistyki, ed. S. Strelcyn, Warszawa: PWN, 1957.
  • Szujski J., Rys dziejów piśmiennictwa świata niechrześcijańskiego: Chiny i rasy niekaukazkie, Indye, Persya, Babylon, Assyrya, Egipt, Fenicya, Hebreja, Hellada, Rzym, Keltowie, Germanie, Słowianie, Arabowie i Turcy, Żydzi w rozproszeniu, Kraków 1867.The Czartoryski Family and the Beginning of Polish Persian Art Connoisseurship, [in:] The Shaping of Persian Art: Collections and Interpretations of the Art of Islamic Iran and Central Asia, eds. Y. Kadoi, I. Szántó, Cambridge 2013, p. 56, BwAAQBAJ&pg=PA52&lpg=PA52&dq=Manuscript+Of+A+Divan+Of+Hafiz+in+Pola nd&source=bl&ots=Hvxw1zDVOQ&sig=FRcwXU5LVvkPu3Kfbpt11xhEyGg&hl=pl&s a=X&ved=0ahUKEwiPh5CH1aLLAhWGYJoKHVIGCdcQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q= Manuscript%20Of%20A%20Divan%20Of%20Hafiz%20in%20Poland&f=false [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • The Flowers of Persian Literature: Containing Extracts from the Most Celebrated Authors, in Prose and Verse; with a Translation into English: Being Intended as a Companion to Sir William Jones’s Persian Grammar, to which is Prefixed an Essay on the Language and Literature of Persia, London 1805, printsec=frontcover&hl=pl&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false [accessed 15 August 2016].
  • Thöluck F.A.G., Ssufismus sive Theosophia Persarum pantheistica, Berlin 1821.
  • Torma K., European translations of Hâfez from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 19th century, Budapest 2013, [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Trojanowiczowa Z., Lijewska E., Kalendarz życia i twórczości Cypriana Norwida, vol. II: 1861-1883, Poznań 2007.
  • Turowska-Barowa I., Zapomniany orientalista polski, Kraków 1937.
  • Ubicini J.-H.-A., Lettres sur la Turquie, ou Tableau statistique, religieux, politique, administratif, militaire, commercial, etc., de l’Empire ottoman, depuis le khatti-cherif de Gulkanè (1839), accompagnéde pièces justificatives, 2 vols., 2ème édit., Paris 1853.
  • Wiernikowski J.N., Gazele perskiego poety Hafiza (free translation from Persian), “Biruta”, part2, Wilno 1838, pp. 41-49, [accessed 20 August 2016].
  • Woźniewska-Działak M., Poematy narracyjne Cypriana Norwida: konteksty literacko-kulturalne, estetyka, myśl, Kraków: Księgarnia Akademicka 2014, p. 175, http://naukairozwo [accessed 15 July 2017].
  • Yohannan J.D., Emerson’s Translations of Persian Poetry from German Sources, “American Literature” 1943, vol. 14/4, pp. 407-420.
  • Yohannan J.D., The Influence of Persian Poetry upon Emerson’s Work, “American Literature” 1943, vol. 15/1, pp. 25-41.
  • Zajączkowski A., Hafiz w Europie, [in:] Gazele wybrane Hafiza, transl. by A. Zajączkowski, Warszawa 1957, pp. 72-93.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.