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2015 | 2(46) | 221-229

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The current problems of preschool children acquaintance with space and time

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The current problems of preschool children acquaintance with space and time are considered in the article. Space and time are the universal, basic categories in human cognition of material, natural and social environment. Space and time perception are one of the major components of ontogenesis that depends on the social and economical conditions, culture and human’s aim to self-knowledge. Space and time are the most complicated categories for understanding and perception by preschool children. The main characteristics of preschool children space and time cognition are mediacy, spatiotemporal relations displacement, the lack of accurate speech nomination of these categories, consistency of acts, time and space. Human’s cognition about space includes such aspects as: shapes of objects and their sizes, the ability to differentiate among the objects in space, estimation of distances at which the objects are located and their directions. Children’s temporal cognition formation starts later and has its specifics. Time perception is one of the most complicated types of perception due to its specifics, lack of visual methods in the first place. The skill of orientation in time gives children the possibility to develop successfully, to possess various activities, to organize, to plan their activities, to control speed, rhythm and to take time factor into consideration. The great role in children’s space and time perception belongs to an adult in the special education organization process. Children’s formed conception about space and time are the basics for the higher mental processes development. Simultaneously children’s acquaintance with space and time in the preschool education practice are traditionally associated with elementary mathematical concepts forming, using the various capabilities of child’s activities insufficiently, in particular, the leading ones: play, learning, work. The possibilities of fine arts, work activities for the further children acquaintance with spatiotemporal relations are observed. Introducing children with work of arts promote not only child’s entry into the world of culture, children’s artistic experience enrichment, but also helps a child to get to know time and space through the materialized means of human existence. In art and design children learn to differentiate spatial characteristics and name them, exercise in spatial modeling. The extension of various activities capabilities in child’s space and time perception will promote its perceptual culture forming, will provide diversity of communication forms with society and preschool child’s own world view modeling.



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