The article covers the question of an innovative approach to the implementation of defectology students – the future teachers-logopedists. Because of the new attitude in modern society to the formation of professional knowledge and skills of the younger generation, new approaches to investment policy in education are required. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the specifics of future teachers- logopedists professional training for work with mentally retarded children of primary school age. Due to the author’s investigation the specific features of corrective work with mentally retarded children of primary school age have been determined and innovative forms of educational process in higher education establishments have been proposed, which may have the significant affect for the efficiency and effectiveness of training. In order to improve the learning process of preparing the teachers to work with mentally retarded children the author has investigated and determined the specificity of speech-corrective work’s stages considering the defect structure in mental retardation. It is noted that logopedic work in a special school has its own specifics, demanded on the peculiarities of higher nervous activity, psychological characteristics of the students, as well as the nature of symptoms, mechanisms, patterns of speech defect. Speech therapy work with children, who have intellectual violations should take into account that a defect in the structure of mental retardation primary caused by thinking impair, as well as the development of thinking processes is parallel with the development of speech. Accordingly, systematic, purposeful work on language development promotes thinking development and namely its leading processes: synthesis, analysis, which promotes activation of cognitive processes in general. Through logopedic therapy, influencing the formation of the language and speech components, following the principle «from simple to complex», the positive dynamics in the speech of mentally retarded pupils can be achieved even at the primary education level.