Italian war effort is not appreciated by Polish historians. Wars waged by Italian armies since 1935 are ignored or neglected. However, Italy was the fourth superpower of Europe which had ambitions to remodel political and geopolitical reality of the 20th century Europe. Visions of victory unfolded by Benito Mussolini among his compatriots were not the visions of a madman out of touch of reality. They were well-thought-out and logical plans to rebuild the Roman Empire. The Italians had no chance to implement their in-tensions; they suffered a resounding defeat in the war. However, it is worth considering how the Mediterranean area would look like if the Kingdom of Italy had won the Second World War.