The aim of the article is to reveal the genesis of gifted education in Ukraine in the XX – at the beginning of the XXI century. Research methods. In the article the following methods are used: general research methods – analysis, synthesis, comparison, classification and generalization; terminological analysis; historical and chronological, which enabled to explore in a historical perspective the theoretical and practical approaches to gifted education provision in Ukraine. Results and their discussion. The stages of gifted education development in Ukraine have been outlined: 1) 20–40-ies of the XX century – creation of non-formal education system for gifted students; 2) 50–60-ies of the XX century – differentiation of educational services for gifted students; 3) 70–80-ies of the XX century – individualization of educational services for gifted students; 4) 90-ies of the XX century – the beginning of XXI century – development of the system of gifted education in independent Ukraine; 5) 10-th of the XXI century – till nowadays – modernization of the education system for gifted students. It should be emphasized that in the development of the proposed periodization the author was guided by both external (political, socio-economic and cultural changes in the life of Ukrainian society) and internal criteria (essential changes in gifted education). Conclusions. Having studied the genesis of gifted education in Ukraine allowed coming to the conclusion that our country has unique achievements in this sphere, namely: the developed system of out-of-school education which helps reveal the potential of students with different types of giftedness; activity and achievements of Minor Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, etc. At the same time the system of educational services provision at Ukrainian general secondary schools is imperfect and biased. In this context important is the study of foreign experience and implementation of its positive conceptual ideas in practice of the native schools. It can be a perspective for further research.