The article tells about Christian traditions of music education in the context of “a dialogue” of two cultures – Byzantine and Old Kyivan Rus. After analyzing common and different features in upbringing and professional preparation of choristers of both countries the author proves, due to comparative-historical method, that Byzantine music education was not mechanically “transplanted” or “transferred” on Kyivan basis. Correspondence of music education contents to general level of Byzantine and Old Kyivan development of society, government’s requirements concerning preparation of choristers, differences in structure of educational establishments in Byzantine Empire and Kyivan Rus prove mutual enrichment of both cultures. It is stated in the article that music education and choir service were very important in both Byzantine Empire and Kyivan Rus. At the beginning Christian communities and then monasteries and government started to be concerned about high professional preparation of choristers. Although education in Byzantine Empire and Kyivan Rus has lots of common tendencies, the one in Byzantine Empire was more complicated, multilevel and it was planned not only for demands of the Church but for public requirements too. Prerogatives of ecclesiastic non-multilevel education can be seen in Kyivan Rus. It is difficult to define a character of “domestic yard” school. The contents of music education corresponded to general level of development of societies in both states. However, Byzantine Empire was an accumulator of culture and its bearer for young European barbarian countries. The contents of music education in Kyivan Rus were directed at Graeco-Christian religious tradition. It also absorbed Syrian and Jewish tunes, which were easier for perception due to texts written in the native language. Certain differences in Byzantine and Kyivan Rus spiritual singing can be seen from the origin of Bizatine liturgy in Kyivan territories, for example stress changes in cantorials.