The article is focused on the study of socio-political and socio-economic background of the origin and development of higher medical education in the western regions of Ukraine in 40–90-ies of the twentieth century. This background has contributed to the formation of a network of the higher medical educational institutions in the given region in the context of Ukraine’s state policy in the health care area. The study has used such methods as theoretical analysis and generalization of archival and printed sources, historical, pedagogical and educational-and-methodological literature; comparative, problem-chronological, historical and genetic analyses which contributes to the study and analysis of the preconditions of the higher medical education formation in the western region in the studied period. The investigation and analysis of historical and archival documents has shown that the western lands were part of Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Hungary for decades, which significantly affected the socio-economic, cultural and national development of the region. The study of historical sources shows that the agricultural sector played a leading role in the economy as industry developed slowly. The population lived in poverty, lacking funds for necessary things. Medical institutions functioned mainly in urban areas, and doctors’ service was paid. This made impossible to provide necessary medical care to the general population. The region experienced high mortality of adults and children. Also, dangerous diseases were spread. After the liberation of these lands from invaders in the 40-ies of the XX century to eliminate dangerous disease, prophylactic medical institutions were organized for improving the population health. For the proper provision of highly qualified personnel, it was needed to form a network of higher medical education institutions that could train specialists, especially involving local youth.