The purpose of this paper is to reveal the presence in the pages of the fi rst scientifi c English journal The Philosophical Transactions of the scholars associated with the Republic of Poland or conducting scientifi c research or experimental observations on the Polish territory. The subject of articles edited and published by Henry Oldenburg during the years 1665–1677 will be outlined, as well as the dynamics of research in the Republic of Poland. Analized were original scientifi c texts sent from Poland to the editor of the journal during the years 1665–1677, as well as the citations of these works or studies from the area of Republic of Poland. Studies have shown that the most active author was Jan Heweliusz — astronomer from the Free Royal City Gdańsk. Unfortunately, other important works of Polish scientists were not published in the journal. The reasons for this lack should be sought in many sorts of factors in the history of Poland in the 17th century.