All the topics of the social encyclicals of Pope John Paul II focused on the human being, the human person and their destiny. Thus, he confirmed a logical and consistent unity between Christian anthropology and the correction of the ‘anthropological error’ of the contemporary trends of the social thought. The overthrow of communism was not so much the abolition of one of the totalitarian systems as it was a universal ‘lesson in humanity’. Questions about the human condition turned out to be important; without them, the contemporary dispute on man would remain unresolved. The communist doctrine wrought permanent damage in the spiritual life of man, particularly by distorting human relationship with their own vocation, and the relationship between them and the community. Other roots of the ‘anthropological error’ can be identified by analyzing the development of modern ideologies of the West. They are primarily associated with the reductive approach towards the understanding of the human person and in the emphasis solely on the purely economic aspects. In a consumer society, people see themselves as products. Pluralism of ideas resulted in the blurring of the truth, confusion, and in making people easily opt for choosing illusions. The lack of a reference point in the form of the absolute (i.e. God) is becoming increasingly noticeable in the culture of the modern world. Humanistic values and ideas have to stand on their own merit – a dangerous situation, since it exposes the social order to the risk of straying from its rightful path, and to selfdegradation. The crisis of truth, expressed in the crisis of science, ideology, and faith, has caused existential emptiness and anxiety. John Paul II’s response was to promote an integrated, full vision of man, including the human being’s relation to God.