European settlement in South Africa began in the 17th century. The first settlers came to be known as Boers. Their numbers grew gradually, as more Dutch and German arrived and Huguenots were fleeing before persecution in France. The Boer colonists, mostly farmers, soon developed their own distinctive culture and language (Afrikaans). At the beginning of the 19th century thousands of British colonists arrived in South Africa. Discrimination against non-whites was inherent in the South African society from the earliest days. South African blacks had the lowest status in the white-dominated state. In the 1948 elections, the National Party led by Daniel Malan, won and began to implement its concept of apartheid, which was designed to separate the races economically, politically, geographically, and socially. After anti-apartheid riots which resulted in the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960, the government banned all black-African political organizations. Apartheid was criticized internationally and many countries imposed economic sanctions on South Africa because of it. Archbishop Desmond Tutu was one of the prominent critics of apartheid. He advocated reform of South Africa's system of institutionalized racial discrimination and decried political violence by any group. He was a leading proponent of sanctions to force the South African government to alter its policies by economic pressure. In 1984 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of the courage and heroism shown by black South Africans in their use of peaceful methods in the struggle against apartheid. In 1984 he was appointed the bishop of Johannesburg. Two years later he was elected the archbishop of Cape Town, the head of the Anglican Church in South Africa. Archbishop Tutu resumed his pastoral duties while retaining an influential position in his country. 1995-1998 he was a chairman of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, set up to investigate political crimes and human rights abuses by both sides during the apartheid period. In 1996 he retired as Archbishop of Cape Town, while retaining his political responsibilities.