The article aims at evaluating the potential for development of innovative payment instruments in Poland taking into account customers’ expectations and preferences. Consumer choices in this respect are based mainly on costs, safety, convenience, ease of use and time needed to make payment with each instrument. To evaluate the significance of these factors in the process of decision making the research was carried out by means of face to face interviews with a sample of 300 respondents. The results show that traditional payment instruments such as cash, debit and credit cards or credit transfer are valued high by Polish consumers. In contrast, innovative payment instruments are considered to be more expensive and less safe, but faster and easier to use. The findings lead to the conclusion that radical changes in consumer payment habits in Poland are very unlikely and should not be expected in the nearest future.