Multifunctionality of agricultural activity is pointed out, by many years, in the doctrine of agricultural law. There is no doubt, however, that the farmer at any time was, is and will be, primarily a producer of food. Food is in fact a specific type of product, necessary for human existence and conduct of agricultural activities is necessary to the manufacture of food. Aim of article is to clarify concepts of “farmer” and “ food business operator”, which are key issues, in the agricultural and food law. The analysis made in the article allows to identify of borders between these two concepts and to specify relationship between them. Author concludes that the majority of farmers are also food business operators. This means that farmers, irrespective of the size and profile of their activities farming, are required to comply with all requirements of food law, appropriate to the stage of primary food production. Taking into account a wide range of the regulation of food law, it must be underlined, that the legal situation of farmers is shaped to a large extent, by the requirements of food law.