Striped flint is a unique mineral occurring only in a few communes bordering the Świętokrzyskie Mountains. In the Neolithic Age and in the early Bronze Age, intense primeval settlement developed in the region in connection with the use of this raw material. Within the area of its outcrop, numerous mines, production and dwelling settlements were built and functioned with varying intensity for hundreds of years. A unique complex of striped flint mines and related excavation and processing infrastructure was established in Krzemionki, where around four thousand mine shafts with various constructions and of various widths and depths as well as relics of flint production workshops, shaft protection structures and waste heaps have survived till now. It is the best preserved and biggest mining complex from the early Stone Age in the world, and currently has historic monument status. Krzemionki and other primeval archaeological sites connected with the excavation and utilisation of striped flint have been endangered by destruction due to the illegal exploitation of flint over the last few years. Striped flint has become an extremely fashionable and desirable type of material for the production of souvenirs, decorations and jewellery, and the demand for it is still growing. This article presents the legal possibilities to control the illegal acquisition of striped flint in connection with applicable provisions of Mining and Geological Law and its legal status as a mineral.