The connections with Chopin tradition and Scriabin’s innovative compositions, repeatedly assigned to Szymanowski, can be already recognized in his first opus, 9 Preludes for piano. By comparison with analogical pieces of Chopin and Scriabin, I have proved the existence of the presumed associations on the ground of basic elements of musical work. I have also attempted to reconstruct a complexity of correlations between the piano compositions of the three masters. A comparative analysis I have carried out focuses on the problems of harmony, tonality, syntax, form and style, and it reveals, on the one hand, Szymanowski’s strong connections with the romantic tradition but, on the other one, his efforts to modernize the musical language. It is most explicit in a harmonic layer of his preludes, especially in a clash of strong tonal brackets determined by the tonic and cadential formula, and an accompanying cumulation of chromatics and secondary harmonic phenomena in central parts of his compositions. A syntactic layer of all analyzed preludes is based on the arrangement of several-bar musical phrases, although in some pieces, modelled on Chopin, this periodic structure appears alongside an evolutionary principle. A basic means of expression is melody, predominantly a cantilena, with a vital role of semitone used especially in the initial phase of the melodic line development. Also a formal analysis of the whole cycle brings interesting conclusions, confirming the existence of a consistent compositional concept determining a periodicity of form (apart from a tonal and expressive aspect, a substantial unity of Szymanowski’s and Chopin’s preludes plays a major part). The artist’s juvenile dependency on authority, typical of musical debuts, can be easily traced in a stylistic layer of 9 Preludes, where the influence of Chopin and Scriabin mainly refers to an expressive role of melody emphasized by a rhythmic freedom, which Szymanowski achieves using, e.g., tempo rubato.