Full-text resources of CEJSH and other databases are now available in the new Library of Science.
Visit https://bibliotekanauki.pl



2019 | 53/2 | 153-170

Article title

Ocenianie w nauczaniu języków obcych. Fakty, mity i trudności


Title variants

Facts, myths and difficulties in the evaluation of educational attainment


Ewaluacja procesów nauczania i uczenia się języków obcych

Languages of publication



The article presents selected psychological and sociological aspects of the process of evaluating educational attainment in language education. Attention is given to stereotypical and ahistorical opinions connected with the role of assessment in grammar-translation and audiolingual methods as well as in the communicative approach. Distortions are also discussed such as introducing testing techniques of a practical value in mass education as solutions responding to authentic communicative needs of the learners or presenting formative evaluation as one of the recent educational innovations. Several myths which unify the academic community and facilitate interaction are examined and distinguished from complex issues and difficulties such as assessing intercultural competence or objectivizing the evaluation of interactive skills. The text suggests that misrepresentation of the past serves to create an image of continuous progress in SLA/FLT as well as to paint a more optimistic picture of the present educational context with assessment as its integral element.






Physical description




  • Uniwersytet SWPS, Warszawa


  • Allal L., Lopez L.M. (2015), Formative assessment of learning. A review of publications in French (w) OECD, Formative assessment. Improving learning in secondary classrooms. Paris: OECD, str. 241-264.
  • Alismail H.A., McGuire P. (2015), 21st century standards and curriculum. Current research and practice (w) „Journal of Education and Practice”, nr 6, str. 150-154.
  • Bachman L. (2015), Language assessment. Its development and future (w) Kunnan A.J. (red.), Talking about language assessment. London: Routledge, str. 199-216.
  • Bachman L., Palmer A. (2010), Language assessment in practice. Developing language tests and justifying their use in the real world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Barthes R. (1957/ 2013), Mythologies. New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Black P., Wiliam D. (1998), Assessment and classroom learning (w) „Assessment in Education”, nr 5, str. 7-71.
  • Bloom B.S., Englehart M.D., Furst H. J., Hill W.H., Krathwohl D.R. (1956), Taxonomy of educational objectives. The classification of educational goals. Handbook I. Cognitive domain. New York: David MacKay.
  • Bloom B.S., Englehart M.D., Furst H. J., Hill W.H., Krathwohl D.R. (1964), Taxonomy of educational objectives. The classification of educational goals. Handbook II. Affective domain. New York: David MacKay.
  • Bloom B.S., Hasting J.T., Madaus G.F. (1971), Handbook of formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York: McGrawHill Book Co.
  • Campbell J. (2013), Potęga mitu. Kraków: Znak.
  • Cardinet J. (1977), Objectifs éducatifs et evaluation individualisée. Neuchâtel: Institut Roman Recherches et de Documentation Pédagogique.
  • Czetwertyńska G. (2015), Ocenianie jako nauczanie i uczenie się (w) „Języki Obce w Szkole”, nr 3, str. 4-9.
  • Davies A. (2015), 40 Years in Applied Linguistics (w) Kunnan A.J. (red), Talking about language assessment. London: Routledge, str. 35-50.
  • De Ketele J.M. (red), (1986). L’èvaluation: approche descriptive ou prescriptive? Brussels: De Boeck.
  • Downing R.H., Vela Delfa C. (2011), Intercomprehension between neighboring languages. From language learning to teacher training (w) Bataller S.M., Clavel-Arroitia B. (red.), Multiple voices in academic and professional discourse. Current issues in specialized language research, teaching and new technologies. Newcastle on Thyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, str. 219-229.
  • Earl L. M. (2013), Assessment as learning. Using classroom assessment to maximize learning. London: Corvin Press.
  • Esterhazy P. (2008), Harmonia caelestis. Warszawa: Czytelnik.
  • Goddu A. (2010), Copernicus and the Aristotelian tradition. Leiden-Boston: Brill.
  • Gordon E.W., Rajagopalan K. (2016), The testing and learning revolution. The future of assessment in education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Griffith R.L., Wolfeld L., Armon B.K., Rios J., Liu O.L. (2016), Assessing intercultural competence in higher education. Existing research and future directions (w) Research Report ETS RR -16-25, https://onlinelibrary.wiley. com/doi/epdf/10.1002/ets2.12112 [DW 15.09.2018].
  • Hattie J. (2008), Visible learning. A synthesis of over 800 meta-analysis relating to achievement. London: Routledge.
  • Heritage M. (2013), Formative assessment in practice. A process of inquiry and action. Cambridge: Harvard Education Press.
  • Herrmann J., Höfer C. (1999), Evaluation in der Schule – Unterrichtsevaluation. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
  • Herman J., Ripley M. (2012), Assessment and teaching of the 21st century. New York: Springer Publishers.
  • Howatt A., Widdowson H. (2004), The history of ELT. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Jenkins A. (2007), English as a lingua franca. Attitude and identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kenyon D., Tschirner E. (2000), The rating of direct and semi-direct oral proficiency interviews. Comparing performance at lower proficiency levels (w) „The Modern Language Journal”, nr 84, str. 85-101.
  • Köller O. (2015), Formative assessment in classrooms. A review of the empirical German literature (w) Formative assessment. Improving learning in secondary classrooms. Paris: OECD, str. 265-279.
  • Kramsch C. (2003), The privilege of the non-native speaker (w) Blyth C. (red.), The sociolinguistics of foreign language classrooms. Contributions of the native, the near-native, and the non-native speaker. Boston, MA: Heinle, str. 251-62.
  • Kucharczyk R. (2015), Jak definiować poprawność językową w epoce wielojęzyczności? Kryteria oceny wypowiedzi ustnej na egzaminie z języka obcego nowożytnego (na przykładzie egzaminów maturalnych (w) Sujecka-Zając J. (red.), Ewaluacja biegłości językowej. Warszawa: Rada Koordynacyjna ds. Certyfikacji Biegłości Językowej UW, str. 119-132.
  • Lado R. (1961), Language testing. The construction and use of foreign language tests. London: Longman.
  • Lenz P., Berthele R. (2010), Assessment in plurilingual and intercultural education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Lewkowicz A. J. (2015), Developing appropriate monolingual assessment criteria for tests in many languages (w) Sujecka-Zając J. (red.), Ewaluacja biegłości językowej.Warszawa: Rada Koordynacyjna ds. Certyfikacji Biegłości Językowej UW, str. 49-57.
  • Medgyes P. (1994/2017), The Non-native Teacher. Exeter: Swan Communication.
  • Nunan D. (2012), Learner-centered English language education. New York: Routledge.
  • Ornstein A.C., Hunkins F. P. (1988), Curriculum. Foundations, Principles and issues. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Paradowski M.B. (2011), Multilingualism – Assessing Benefits (Komorowska H.(red.), Warszawa: FRSE, str. 335-354.
  • Pinar W.F. (2004), Understanding curriculum. New York: Peter Lang.
  • Rosenthal R., Jacobsen L. (1968), Pygmalion in the classroom. Teacher expectation and pupils’ intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Rubie-Davies Ch. (2009), Teacher expectations and labeling (w) Saha J, Dworkin A.G (red.), International Handbook of Research on Teachers and Teaching, str. 695-707.
  • Scriven M. (1967), The methodology of evaluation (w) „AERA Monograph Series on Evaluation”, nr 1, str. 39-83.
  • Seidlhofer B. (2002), A Concept of international English and related issues: From “Real English” to” Realistic English”. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
  • Shohamy E. (2015), From cloze to consequences and beyond. Interview by Anne Lazaraton (w) Kunnan A.J. (red.), Talking about language assessment. Routledge, London, str.150 -183.
  • Shohamy E. (2011), The Power of tests. A critical perspective on the uses of language tests. Singapore: Longman.
  • Stansfield C. W. (1996), Test development handbook. Simulated Oral Proficiency Interview. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
  • Steegmuller F. (1949), Maupassant. A Lion in the path. London: Macmillan.
  • Sterna D. (2016), Uczyć się uczyć. Ocenianie kształtujące w praktyce. Warszawa: Centrum Edukacji Obywatelskiej.
  • SurveyLang. (2012). Brussels: European Union.
  • Szmerdt D. (2002). Ocenianie sprawności mówienia (w) Ewaluacja w nauce języka obcego (red. Komorowska H). Białystok: Wydawnictwo UwB, s. 37-52.
  • Taba H. (1963), Teaching strategies and cognitive functioning in elementary school children. Cooperative research project 2404. San Francisco: San Francisco.
  • Taylor P.H., Richards M. (1985), An introduction to curriculum studies. Milton Keynes: NFER Nelson.
  • Tedesco J.C., Opertii R., Amadio M. (2014), The curriculum debate. Why it is important today (w) „Prospects”, nr 44, str. 527-546.
  • Tsagari D., Banerjee J. (2016), Handbook of second language assessment. Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
  • Tyler R. (1949), Basic principles of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Weiss J. (red). (1991), Ėvaluation – problème de communication. Cousset: Del Vals.

Document Type

Publication order reference

YADDA identifier

JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.