The article is about the Deaf and his language. Polish Sign Language (PSL) is not only the way the Deaf communicate, but it is also the language, in which signs are not only iconic, but also arbitrary (symbolic) in character. PSL is not a universal language. There is also presented the idea of bilingual education of the Deaf in Poland and their situation here. The idea of bilingualism emerged a few decades ago in the USA and Europe; it reached Poland in the late 1980’s. According to it, the Deaf represent a language minority, sign language being their native tongue. In the course of school education they acquire inter alia the language of the hearing majority as a “foreign” one; normally, in its written variant, which is the only accessible to them. Bilingual school curricula for the Deaf are typical of the USA, Sweden, England, Denmark, Norway and Finland. Poland is still far behind.For the last 150 years deaf education in Poland has concentrated on spoken Polish. Practically, bilingualism does not work in our country. The Warsaw Institute of the Deaf seems to be one of few places in Poland where bilingual education is an everyday practice. The Deaf are a cultural and language minority and they should be taught on the special language courses dedicated only to them as PSL users (similarly to the courses of Polish language for Slavic, Roman or Asian language students). The teacher of the deaf students should know PSL which is the natural language of the Polish Deaf.