Inwentaryzacja etnograficzna drewnianego budownictwa ludowego na Opolszczyźnie
ETHNOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF FOLK TIMBER ARCHITECTURE IN OPOLE REGION
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The author deals with the problem of the protection of monuments of rural timber building in the region o f Opole. The framework construction technique was developing there from the 10th till the 19th century. In the period of Poland’s partitions, the folk timber building was disappearing systematically and the transformations after the recovery o f independence were accompanied by the tendency to eliminate the rests of wooden buildings and replace them by those raised in brick. It was in order to preserve the monuments of timber architecture that Opole Skansen Museum — latter on called Opole Village Museum — was set up in 1961. In 1966—1971 an ethnographic survey of the folk timber architecture was carried out. The staff of the Museum have worked out, on the basis of the so-called green inventory chart, used in conservation proceedings, their own chart for ethnographic inventorying of the monuments of rural architecture. As a result data have been collected pertaining to 1,200 specimens of folk timber building in the region of Opole. Of this number only a half have been recognized as buildings of historical value, the remaining ones having not been included in that class on account of a high degree of their decay or numerous alterations and repeated rebuilding. As follows from relevant analysis of the collected materials, it was the framework construction technique — characterized by wall beams being connected in the cogs — and the transom-type one, that was mainly applied in raising the preserved wooden buildings. The most numerous group among them make the barns and granaries, a minor one — dwelling houses and churches, followed by a small number of structures used for what might be defined as industrial purposes, above all, of wind mills. In view of the rapidly progressing process of disappearance of the monuments of folk timber architecture, the Opole Village Museum carries on verification of the surveyed buildings, sets up the Skansen and runs an inventory of valuable structures, not to be included in the latter.
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