Human rights are one of the main European policy horizons, and also the basic pillar of the social and moral order in contemporary world. This does not change the fact that specific and complex narrative of human rights provokes important controversies, as well as open criticism. In the present article we indicate the main thrust of these doubts and objections. Three distinguished fi gures of this criticism we describe as cultural, epistemological and political. Each of them has its numerous representatives, but we introduce only few of them. They are Charles Taylor, Richard Rorty and Pierre Manent. What strikes us in this debate is the fact that it focuses most of the major dilemmas associated with the European integration project. The disagreements about human rights refl ects indeed the debate over the future shape of Europe.