The protection of cultural property at the time of an armed conflict comprises an extremely essential problem. International law foresees detailed guidelines concerning this issue in its Convention on the protection of cultural property in the case of an armed conflict, the Executive rules to this convention and the Protocol on the protection of cultural property in case of an armed conflict, signed at The Hague on 14 May 1954. These documents list the instruments and legal institutions protecting historical monuments during this particularly dangerous time. From the practical viewpoint, particular importance is attached primarily to a detailed definition of the object of protection. The instruments of protection include the specially noteworthy special protection, the International Register of Cultural Property under Special Protection, as well as the storage and transport of cultural property. Apart from the above mentioned detailed rules, which have not as yet been accepted by all countries, cultural property is protected according to assorted general principles. International law indubitably exerts direct impact on the contents of domestic law. Nonetheless, importance should be attached not only to law, but also to suitable social policies which ought to focus universal awareness on the necessity of preserving material cultural heritage for successive generations.