Oko za oko, ząb za ząb. Formuła talionu w biblijnym prawie Izraela
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This paper presents an interpretative study of the talion formula: eye for eye, tooth for tooth, occurring in three law codes of the Old Testament, shown against a background of history, function and meaning of this principle in the oldoriental law, particularly in the Code of Hammurabi, as well as in fundamental rules of the oldtestamental law. The research has showed that the famous formula of the Bible should be understood in the meaning of a rule, which confirms the legislators intention to protect a human life, especially in the dimension of the social human relations. The expression eye for eye, tooth for tooth, stated in the context of a concrete law regulation cannot be understood as a calling to retaliate, revenge, but as an order to rightly pay for harms and give equivalents. Such form of satisfaction should also be an external sign of conciliation between an offender and their victim, what would make possible a new common life in peace.
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