Protestants have been present in Podlachia since the Reformation; but Lutherans appeared in the city of Białystok and its surroundings in the 18th century. They were, among others, architects and craftsmen in the service of hetman J. K. Branicki and some staff of postal stations. In the nearby Zabłudów there was a Reformed parish already in 1608. More Lutherans settled in Białystok after 1795 when, as a result of the Third Partition of Poland, the city was annexed by Prussia and became the capital of the province and department. A rapidly-growing congregation was established with a military chaplain as their pastor. When Białystok was ceded to the Russian Empire in 1807, the structure of parish members changed: in lieu of soldiers and clerks, well-qualified craftsmen became the majority. Some expansive development of the congregation occurred after 1831 when due to economic reasons many textile factories were moved from the Łódź industrial region to the region of Białystok. By the end of the 19th century, the parish had about 12 thousand members. This paper describes the history of the parish until World War I. It presents profiles of pastors, and describes church buildings, as well as charity, educational and cultural actions undertaken by the parish.