With the growth of societies in size, complexity and diversification, the obtaining formal and informal factors of social control become insufficient, which contributes to the rise of social pathology. The paper contains an overview of definitions of the con-cept of social pathology and theories explaining the sources of social pathology: struc-tural tensions, conflicts, stigmatization, control and variegated relationships between them. The sources of the negative phenomena are also related to the effects produced by processes of socio-economic, cultural and political transformations. Social pathology can have both an individual and a collective dimension. Indivi- dual pathology may be linked to alcoholism, drug-taking, prostitution, suicide or indi-vidual crime commitment. The individual pathology affects mainly its bearers but its effects constitute a danger to their nearest environment (including their families), groups or the whole society. It is difficult and hardly effective to counteract social pathology. It requires an enormous input of efforts and means. It necessitates a co-operation of involved institu-tions, including governmental ones, such as the police, prosecutors, courts, prisons, health care, social assistance institutions and non-governmental ones, such as founda-tions, MONAR, etc. It is possible to implement various strategies – both non-repressive and repressive ones. A broadly conceived prevention, meaning preventing pathological phenomena from arising, should be the main instrument of the counteraction.