The subject of the study is the features, functions and structure of the Ukrainian scientific picture of the world and its component – the picture of the world of melioration science. The theoretical basis of the research is the thesis of the foreign and Ukrainian scholars on the scientific picture of the world as a consolidated and structured system of universal scientific knowledge. The methods of the research are the following: a method of structural and functional analysis of the concept, a method of definition analysis, a comparative method and a method of quantitative analysis. It has been found that the scientific picture of the world is a system of concepts that represents the scientific cognition of the world. The functions of the scientific picture of the world are usually identified as heuristic, synthetic, methodological, systematising and world outlook creating. The unified scientific picture of the world consists of the following types: humanitarian, natural, social and technical ones. The format of the scientific picture of the world expressed by the terminology of melioration belongs to the natural sciences picture of the world. The contributors to the melioration picture of the world are the subsystems of its sub-sectors, namely: water, land, chemical, technical, phytomelioration and others. The modern melioration picture of the world is largely formed by means of international terms (about 70%), and to a lesser extent by the genuine (national) vocabulary (30%).