The Consequences of Imperfect Legislative Policy Using the Example of Selected EU Directives
Konekwencje niewłaściwej polityki legislacyjnej na przykładzie wybranych dyrektyw
Languages of publication
Legislative policy is understood in this paper as a holistic approach to the law-making process. EU legislative policy is missing the overall idea on how to legislate, a fact which has induced fragmentation, lack of cohesion and improper implementation of EU law. The goal of this study is not a theoretical discussion on the negative aspects of directive functioning, but to focus on selected imperfections of EU legislative policy and to illustrate them with examples of selected directives. My thesis is that EU legislative policy based on directives is far from perfect or even effective and requires definite changes. As a first step, using fragmentary regulations of particular domains (sectors) of socio-economic life should be stopped. Second, the EU legislature needs to make significant progress in terms of the legislative quality of the laws created. Finally, mechanisms requiring the implementation of directives by member states should be strengthened. These measures require prompt application if the EU legal system is to be an effective tool for, rather than obstacle to, European integration.
- Biernat, S. (2006) "Prawo Unii Europejskiej a prawo państw członkowskich" [The law of the European Union and the law of the member states] in J. Barcz (ed.) Prawo Unii Europejskiej [The law of the European Union). Warsaw. Wiedza i Praktyka.
- Dassesse, M., Isaacs, S. and Penn, G. (1994) EC Banking Law. Second edition. London: Lloyd's of London Press Ltd.
- Dillenkofer (1996) "Case C-178/94 Dillenkofer and Others v. Germany". Coll of Dec. 1996: 4845.
- Grzegorczyk, E (2009) "Implementacja dyrektywy energetycznej (2003/54/WE) do prawa polskiego" [Implementation of the energy directive (2003/54/EC) into Polish law). Europejski Przegląd Sądowy 1.
- Kendall, V. (1995) EC Consumer Law. London.
- Łętowska, E. (2004a) Nieuczciwe klauzule w prawie umów konsumenckich. Orzecznictwo europejskie [Unfair clauses in consumer agreements law. European rulings). Warsaw.
- Łętowska, E. (2004b) Europejskie prawo umów konsumenckich [European consumer agreements law). Warsaw: C. H. Beck.
- Note of DG Energy & Transport on Directive 2003/54/EC on the Internal Market in Electricity and Natural Gas, www.ec.europa.eu: 8.
- Nowak, B. (2007) "Rozdział przedsiębiorstw zintegrowanych pionowo w sektorze energii elektrycznej i gazu na podstawie Dyrektyw Elektroenergetycznej i Gazowej. Mit czy rzeczywistość?" [Unbundling of vertically−integrated undertakings in the electricity and gas sectors on the basis of the Electricity and Gas Directives. Myth or reality?]. Przegląd Ustawodawstwa Gospodarczego 8.
- Nowak-Far, A. (2004) "Ochrona konsumenta" [Consumer protection] in J. Barcz (ed.) Prawo Unii Europejskiej. Zagadnienia systemowe [The law of the European Union. Systemie issues]. Vol. II. Warsaw: Wiedza i Praktyka.
- Schulte-Nölke, H. (2008) EC Consumer Law Compendium − Comparative Analysis. Bielefeld: Universität Bielefeld.
- Szpringer, W. (1999) Ochrona klienta usług bankowych [Protection of banking services customers]. Warsaw: Difin.
- Normative Acts
- Directive 2006/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 relating to taking up and pursuit of the business of credit institutions (recast), OJ L 177 of 30.06.2006: 1−20.
- Directive 2008/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on credit agreements for consumers and repealing Council Directive 87/102/EEC, OJ L 133 of 22.5.2008: 66−92.
- Directive 2009/110/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 on the taking up, pursuit and prudential supervision of the business of electronic money institutions, amending Directives 2005/60/EC and 2006/48/EC and repealing Directive 2000/46/EC, OJ L 267 of 10.10.2009: 7−17.
- Directive 2007/64/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 November 2007 on payment services in the internal market, amending Directives 97/7/EC, 2002/65/EC, 2005/60/EC, and 2006/48/EC and repealing Directive 97/5/EC, OJ L 319 of 5.12.2007: 1−36.
- Directive 2002/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 September 2002 concerning the distance marketing of consumer financial services and amending Council Directive 90/619/EEC and Directives 97/7/EC and 98/27/EC, OJ L 271 of 9.10.2002: 16−24.
- Directive 2009/138/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the taking-up and pursuit of the business of insurance and reinsurance (Solvency II), OJ L 335 of 17.12.2009: 1−155.
- Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on consumer rights, amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council Directive 85/577/EEC and Directive 97/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, OJ L 304 of 22.11.2011: 64−88.
- Council Directive 90/314/EEC of 13 June 1990 on package travel, package holidays and package tours, OJ L 158 of 23.06.1990: 59−64. Council Directive 93/13/EEC of April 1993 on unfair terms in consumer contracts, OJ L 95 of 21.04.1993: 29−34.
- Directive 98/6/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 1998 on consumer protection in the indication of the prices of products offered to consumers, OJ L 80 of 18.03.1998:27−31.
- Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 May 1999 on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees, OJ L 171 of 7.07.1999: 12−16.
- Directive 2000/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the internal market, OJ L178 of 17.07.2000: 1−16.
- Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2005 concerning unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market and amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No. 2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council, OJ L 149 of 11.06.2005: 22−39.
- Directive 2009/72/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 2003/54/EC, OJ L 211 of 14.8.2009: 55−93.
- Directive 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity and repealing Directive 96/92/EC, OJ L 176 of 15.07.2003: 37−56.
- Energy Act of 10 April 1997, Journal of Law 2006, No. 89, item 625, as amended.
Publication order reference