PL EN


2017 | 20 | 5-43
Article title

Augustan Poets on the Roman-Parthian Treaty of 20 BC

Authors
Title variants
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
From the moment Rome established contacts with the Parthian empire in the 1st century BC, its relations with the eastern neighbour became one of the most important points of Roman foreign policy. Attempts to subjugate Parthia ended in Rome’s crushing defeat at Carrhae in 53 BC. Having taken over power in the Roman Republic, Octavian Augustus became much more active in his oriental policy, wishing to erase the shame brought upon Rome by the defeat. The peace treaty signed in 20 BC was the Emperor’s diplomatic success and was presented as a great triumph by the Roman propaganda. In this paper, I analyse several frag-ments referring to this agreement in the works of the Augustan poets Horace, Propertius and Ovid. The works, written over almost three decades, present this event from various perspectives. On the one hand, they show a strong intermixture of politics and literature, and on the other hand, great talent and artistic skill of the poets writing creatively about issues which were current in Rome at the time.
Year
Issue
20
Pages
5-43
Physical description
Contributors
author
References
  • Horace, 2004, Odes and Epodes, ed. and transl. N. Rudd, Cambridge–London.
  • Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 1986, Dzieła wszystkie. Tom I. Ody i epody, O. Jurewicz (ed.), Wrocław.
  • Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 1988, Dzieła wszystkie. Tom II. Gawędy, Listy, Sztuka poetycka, O. Jurewicz (ed.), Wrocław.
  • Ovid, 1989, Fasti, transl. J. G. Frazer, Cambridge–London, 2nd edition, rev. G. P. Goold.
  • Ovid, 1939, Tristia, Ex Ponto, transl. A. L. Wheeler, Cambridge–London.
  • Publius Ovidius Naso, 1907, Amores, Epistulae, Medicamina faciei femineae, Ars amatoria, Remedia amoris, R. Ehwald (ed.), Leipzig.
  • Propertius, 2006, Elegies. Book IV, G. Hutchinson (ed.), Cambridge.
  • Propertius, 1977, Elegies I–IV, ed., introd. and comm. L. Richardson, jr, University of Oklahoma.
  • Res Gestae divi Augusti: The Achievements of the Divine Augustus, 1967, introd. and comm. P. A. Brunt, J. M. Moore, Oxford.
  • Allen W. et al., 1970, ‘The Addressees in Horace’s First Book of “Epistles”’, Stu­dies in Philology 67/3, pp. 255–266.
  • Arnaud P., 1998, ‘Les guerres parthiques de Gabinius et de Crassus et la politique occidentale des Parthes Arsacides entre 70 et 53 av. J.-C.’, Electrum 2, pp. 13–34.
  • Babnis T., 2016, ‘Persowie, Medowie, Partowie w Pieśniach Horacego’, Nowy Filomata 20/2, pp. 171–187.
  • Bivar A. D. H., 2006, ‘The Political History of Iran under the Arsacids’, [in:] The Cambridge History of Iran, E. Yarshater (ed.), Vol. 3/1, Cambridge, pp. 21– 99, [online:] http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521200929.004.
  • Bowersock G., 1985, ‘Augustus and the East: The Problem of Succession’, [in:] Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects, F. Millar, E. Segal (eds.), Oxford, pp. 169–188.
  • Braund D., 1993, ‘Dionysiac Tragedy in Plutarch, Crassus’, The Classical Quarterly 43/2, pp. 468–474, [online:] http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0009838800040003.
  • Breed B. W., 2004, ‘Tua, Caesar, Aetas: Horace Ode 4.15 and the Augustan Age’, The American Journal of Philology 125/2, pp. 245–253, [online:] http://dx.doi. org/10.1353/ajp.2004.0015.
  • Brunt P. A., 1990, Roman Imperial Themes, Oxford.
  • Campbell B., 2002 (1993), ‘War and diplomacy: Rome and Parthia, 31 BC–AD 235’, [in:] War and Society in the Roman World, J. Rich, G. Shipley (eds.), London – New York, pp. 213–240.
  • Chaumont M.-L., 1992, ‘Échos de la campagne de Tibère en Arménie (20 av. J.-C.) dans une épigramme de Krinagoras (Anthologia Palatina, IX, 430)’, L’Antiquité Classique 61, pp. 178–191.
  • Cloud D., 2002 (1993), ‘Roman poetry and anti-militarism’, [in:] War and So­ciety in the Roman World, J. Rich, G. Shipley (eds.), London – New York, pp. 115–138.
  • Crook J. A., 2006 (1996), ‘Political History, 30 B.C. to A.D. 14’, [in:] The Cam­bridge Ancient History 10. The Augustan Empire 43 BC – 69 AD, A. K. Bow­man, E. Champlin, A. Lintott (eds.), Cambridge, pp. 70–112, [online:] http:// dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521264303.003.
  • Dąbrowa E., 1983, La politique de l’État parthe à l’égard de Rome – d’Artaban II à Vologèse I (ca 11 – ca 79 de n.e.) et les facteurs qui la conditionnaient, Kraków.
  • Edwell P., 2013, ‘The Euphrates as a Boundary between Rome and Parthia in the Late Republic and Early Empire’, Antichthon 47, pp. 191–206, [online:] http:// dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0066477400000332.
  • Gale M. R., 1997, ‘Propertius 2.7: Militia Amoris and the Ironies of Elegy’, The Journal of Roman Studies 87, pp. 77–91, [online:] http://dx.doi.org/10.2307 /301370.
  • Gruen E. S., 2006 (1996), ‘The Expansion of the Empire under Augustus’, [in:] The Cambridge Ancient History 10. The Augustan Empire 43 BC – 69 AD, A. K. Bowman, E. Champlin, A. Lintott (eds.), Cambridge, pp. 147–197.
  • Hannestad N., 1988, Roman Art and Imperial Policy, Aarhus.
  • Hardie Ph., 2007, ‘Images of the Persian Wars in Rome’, [in:] Cultural Respon­ses to the Persian Wars. Antiquity to the Third Millennium, E. Bridges, E. Hall, P. J. Rhodes (eds.), Oxford, pp. 127–143, [online:] http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ acprof:oso/9780199279678.003.000.
  • Herbert-Brown G., 1994, Ovid and the Fasti. An Historical Study, Oxford.
  • Huzar E. G., 1978, Mark Antony. A Biography, Minneapolis.
  • Johnson T. J., 2004, A Symposion of Praise. Horace Returns to Lyric in Odes IV, Madison.
  • Keaveney A., 1981, ‘Roman Treaties with Parthia circa 95–circa 64 B.C.’, The American Journal of Philology 102/2, pp. 195–212.
  • Keaveney A., 1982, ‘The King and the War-Lords: Romano-Parthian Relations Circa 64–53 B.C.’, The American Journal of Philology 103/4, pp. 412–428.
  • Keaveney A., 1998, Lukullus, transl. A. Ziółkowski, Warszawa.
  • Korpanty J., 1985, Obraz człowieka i filozofia życia w literaturze rzymskiej epoki augustowskiej, Kraków.
  • La Bua G., 2013, ‘Horace’s East: Ethics and Politics’, Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 107, pp. 265–296.
  • Lerouge Ch., 2007, L’image des Parthes dans le monde gréco-romain. Du début du Isiècle av. J.-C. jusqu’à la fin du Haut-Empire romain, Stuttgart.
  • Lowrie M., 2007, ‘Horace and Augustus’, [in:] The Cambridge Companion to Horace, S. J. Harrison (ed.), Cambridge, pp. 77–89, [online:] http://dx.doi. org/10.1017/CCOL0521830028.007.
  • Magie D., 1920, ‘Augustus’ War in Spain (26–25 B. C.)’, Classical Philology 15/4, pp. 323–339, [online:] http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/360305.
  • Malitz J., 1984, ‘Caesars Partherkrieg’, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 33/1, pp. 21–59.
  • McCarter S., 2015, Horace between Freedom and Slavery. The First Book of Epistles, University of Wisconsin.
  • McGann M. J., 1969, Studies in Horace’s First Book of Epistles, Bruxelles.
  • Merriam C. U., 2004, ‘‘Either with us or against us’: The Parthians in Augustan Ideology’, Scholia: Studies in Classical Antiquity 13, pp. 56–70.
  • Meyer H. D., 1961, Die Aussenpolitik des Augustus und die augusteische Dich­tung, Köln–Graz.
  • Milczanowski M., 2013, W cieniu boskiego Juliusza. Imię Cezara w propagandzie schyłku Republiki, Kraków.
  • Olbrycht M. J., 2009, ‘Mithridates IV and Iran’, [in:] Mithridates VI and the Pontic Kingdom, J. M. Hojte (ed.), Aarhus, pp. 163–190.
  • Olbrycht M. J., 2010, ‘Iran starożytny’, [in:] Historia Iranu, A. Krasnowolska (ed.), Wrocław, pp. 27–283.
  • Olbrycht M. J., 2013, Imperium Parthicum. Kryzys i odbudowa państwa Arsaki­dów w pierwszej połowie pierwszego wieku po Chrystusie, Kraków.
  • Ostrowski J. A., 1999, Starożytny Rzym. Polityka i sztuka, Warszawa–Kraków.
  • Piegdoń M., 2011, Krassus. Polityk niespełnionych ambicji, Kraków.
  • Rich J. W., 1998, ‘Augustus’s Parthian Honours, the Temple of Mars Ultor and the Arch in the Forum Romanum’, Papers of the British School at Rome 66, pp. 71–128, [online:] http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0068246200004244.
  • Romer F. E., 1979, ‘Gaius Caesar’s Military Diplomacy in the East’, Transactions of the American Philological Association 109, pp. 199–214.
  • Rose Ch. B., 2005, ‘The Parthians in Augustan Rome’, American Journal of Ar­chaeology 109/1, pp. 21–75, [online:] http://dx.doi.org/10.3764/aja.109.1.21.
  • Sartre M., 1997, Wschód rzymski: Prowincje i społeczeństwa prowincjonalne we wschodniej części basenu Morza Śródziemnego w okresie od Augusta do Se­werów, transl. S. Rościcki, Wrocław.
  • Sawiński P., 2016, Sukcesja władzy cesarskiej w okresie rządów dynastii julijsko­-klaudyjskiej (30 p.n.e. – 68 n.e.), Poznań.
  • Schneider R. M., 1986, Bunte Barbaren. Orientalenstatuen aus farbigem Marmor in der römischen Repräsentationskunst, Worms.
  • Schneider R. M., 2007, ‘Friend and Foe: the Orient in Rome’, [in:] The Age of the Parthians, V. S. Curtis, S. Stewart (eds.), London, pp. 50–86.
  • Seager R., 2002, Pompey the Great. A Political Biography, Blackwell, [online:] http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470773420.
  • Sharrock A., 1994, ‘Ovid and the Politics of Reading’, Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici 33, pp. 97–122.
  • Spawforth A., 1994, ‘Symbol of unity? The Persian wars tradition in the Ro­man Empire’, [in:] Greek Historiography, S. Hornblower (ed.), Oxford, pp. 233–247.
  • Spawforth A., 2012, Greece and the Augustan Cultural Revolution, Cambridge.
  • Syme R., 1978, History in Ovid, Oxford.
  • Śnieżewski S. A., 1993, Problem boskości Oktawiana-Augusta w poezji augustow­skiej, Kraków.
  • Taylor L. R., 1968, ‘Republican and Augustan Writers Enrolled in the Equestrian Centuries’, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Asso­ciation 99, pp. 469–486.
  • Timpe D., 1975, ‘Zur augusteischen Partherpolitik zwischen 30 und 20 v. Chr.’, Würzburger Jahrbücher für die Altertumswissenschaft 1, pp. 155–169.
  • Traina G., 2009, ‘Note in margine alla battaglia di Carre’, Electrum 15, pp. 235–248.
  • Traina G., 2010, ‘Imperial Views on the Battle of Carrhae’, [in:] War in Words. Transformations of War from Antiquity to Clausewitz, M. Formisano, H. Böh­me (eds.), Berlin – New York, pp. 211–219.
  • Wiedemann T., 1975, ‘The Political Background to Ovid’s Tristia 2’, The Classical Quarterly 25/2, pp. 264–271.
  • Wissemann M., 1982, Die Parther in der augusteischen Dichtung, Frankfurt am Mein – Bern.
  • Wolski J., 1999, Dzieje i upadek imperium Seleucydów, Kraków.
  • Zadorojniy A. V., 1997, ‘Tragedy and Epic in Plutarch’s ‘Crassus’’, Hermes 125/2, pp. 169–182.
  • Zagórski M., 2006, Bogowie mieszkają na Palatynie. Oktawian August i jego pro­gram ideowy w “Metamorfozach” Owidiusza, Kraków.
  • Zanker P., 1999, August i potęga obrazów, transl. L. Olszewski, Poznań.
  • Zarzycka-Stańczak K., 1999, Idem aliter. Przybliżenia owidiańskie, Lublin
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-c7330f25-e334-427d-91b8-360dc5b33cca
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.