Видання літературно-художніх творів українських письменниць у Галичині 1900–1914 рр.
Publications of literary works of female Ukrainian writers in Galicia in 1900–1914
Languages of publication
Women as activists, especially as writers, began to talk about their rights as equal to men’s rights in the late 19th century. Before that their writings were mostly supplements to books for children, memoirs, albums of lyrical pieces, afact that limited their contribution to the development of national literature. In our view, “women’s literature” as acreative phenomenon began to take shape a long time ago, in the pre-modern period, but it did not become vivid and popular until the modernist period; it has not lost this vitality and popularity to this day. Works published in 1900–1914 were those of Marek Wowczak (pen name of Maria Oleksandrivna Wilinska), Maria Grinchenko, Olga Kobylanska, Eugenia Jaroszynska, Klaudia Aleksovych, Konstantina Malicka, Maria Perfecka and others. In total over 50 works were published. Particularly interesting is the period between the mid-19th century and early 20th century. An analysis of book culture of the period makes it possible to describe the emergence of anew status of female writers and their publishing possibilities, and to assess the artistic and literary qualities of works by female authors as well as the various intellectual processes being revealed in them. As they agreed to publish works by Ukrainian female writers from Galicia and other regions, the People’s Publishing Company, the Ukrainian-Ruthenian Publishing Union, the Galician Publishing Company (headed by Yakov Orenshtаin), the Mikhail Kaczkowski Society, Prisvita and other publishing companies could not publish female texts in attractive editorial layouts. This stemmed primarily from the fact that the works were published as part of series which had pre-defined layouts. In the early 20th century, cover, title and text designs were rather pared-down. Still, the introduction of works by novice female writers into the series helped them win popularity, because the series were already well-known to readers. The publication of texts by female authors by no means reduced the circulation; on the contrary – it boosted people’s interest in these publications. The fact that texts by female writers were included in well-known publishing series edited by Ivan Franko, Mikhail Refec and other representatives of Ukrainian associations suggested that female writers were equal to men; their texts were published alongside those written by male writers. Women’s writings suggested that women had their own topics and ideas, which sometimes overlapped with those of men (in the historical, military, social or romantic perspective). The fact that female works were imbued with these ideas contributed to their popularity. The graphic layout of women’s literature referred to alarge extent to epistemological or educational publications offered in the series, publications in which means of artistic reflection on reality were hardly ever used. The simplicity or minimalism of illustrations on the cover and in the title meant that there were no such elements inside the various volumes either. Graphic minimalism stemmed from adesire to guarantee alow price. Offering readers inexpensive books may have encouraged people in Galicia to read and engage in self-education.
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