PL EN


2018 | 1(55) | 21-40
Article title

Feudal Internationalism? Foreign Policy of the People’s Republic of China: See China Change From Back Then to Now to What Next?

Content
Title variants
PL
Feudalny internacjonalizm? Polityka zagraniczna Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej: obraz Chin z przeszłości, spojrzenie na teraźniejszość i prognozy na przyszłość
Languages of publication
PL EN
Abstracts
PL
Suwerenne terytorium nazywane obecnie Chińską Republiką Ludową istnieje od ponad 5000 lat. W tym czasie doświadczyło rządów kilkudziesięciu dynastii, kilku gubernatorów wojskowych i przynajmniej dwóch republik, w tym Chińskiej Republiki Ludowej. W tak długim okresie Chiny przeszły olbrzymie zmiany, co miało swoje odzwierciedlenie w zmianach języka, przyjmowaniu i odrzucaniu różnych form rządów i przywódców, czasach dobrobytu za panowania Dynastii Ming, biedy spowodowanej „Wielkim skokiem” w latach 50. XX wieku i „Rewolucją kulturalną” lat 60. i 70. XX wieku, aż po obecny okres, który autorzy nazywają „feudalnym internacjonalizmem”. Praca poświęcona jest zmianom polityki zagranicznej Chin: od okresów dynastycznych, przez post-dynastyczny okres Ming Guo (1911-1927), Republikę Chińską kontrolowaną przez Chińską Partię Narodową (Guomingtang), (1927-1949), po Chińską Republikę Ludową pod przywództwem Chińskiej Partii Komunistycznej (Gongchantang). Po przejęciu władzy w 1949 r., Chińska Partia Komunistyczna wielokrotnie zmieniała swoją politykę zagraniczą, głównie od momentu lub podczas „otwierania się” Chin na Zachód za czasów administracji Deng Xiaopinga jako „najwyższego przywódcy” Chin (1978-1989), który rozpoczął „cztery modernizacje” (z których trzecia zmodernizowała chińskie siły obronne). Zmiany w chińskiej polityce zagranicznej miały swój dalszy ciąg pod przywództwem jej obecnego prezydenta, Xi Jinpinga, szczególnie w postaci inicjatywy „Jeden pas, jedna droga”, która pociągała za sobą stworzenie infrastruktury w całej Eurazji i Afryce. Inwestycja warta miliardy dolarów, które mogą urosnąć do trylionów, jest próbą wskrzeszenia starożytnego „Jedwabnego Szlaku” wiodącego zarówno przez ląd, jak i trasy morskie, zaopatrzone w najbardziej zaawansowane technologicznie lotniska, autostrady, koleje i porty morskie, mające dać Chinom dostęp do surowców naturalnych, źródeł energii z Afryki oraz rynków konsumenckich w Europie.
EN
Sovereign territory that is called the People’s Republic of China at present has existed for some 5,000 years or longer across several dozen dynasties, several periods ruled by “warlords,” at least two Republics including the current People’s Republic of China. Over such a long time period, “China” has changed remarkably, evidenced by revisions in its language, arrival then departure of various forms of governance and leaders, prosperity during the Ming Dynasty, poverty from the “Great Leap Forward” of the 1950s through the “Cultural Revolution” of the 1960s and 1970s, to the present period the authors have termed “feudal internationalism.” This article will focus on China’s changing foreign policies: from the dynastic periods, across the post-dynastic Ming Guo period (1911-1927), to the Republic of China period controlled by the Chinese Nationalist Party (Guomingtang), (1927- 1949), to the People’s Republic of China controlled by the Chinese Communist Party (Gongchantang) that has changed its own foreign policies several times since taking power in 1949, mostly during or since China’s “opening” to the West during the administration of Deng Xiaoping as China’s “paramount leader” (1978-1989) that ushered in “four modernizations”, the third of which upgraded China’s national defense. Changes in China’s foreign policy have continued under its current president, Xi Jinping, most noticeably with China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative that involves building infrastructure across Eurasia and Africa at the cost of billions of dollars estimated to turn into trillions of dollars as China endeavors to resurrect then put to new uses the ancient “Silk Road” overland plus the maritime “Silk Route” with cutting edge airports, highways, railways, seaports needed to connect China with raw materials including energy sources from Africa and consumer markets in Europe.
Year
Issue
Pages
21-40
Physical description
Contributors
author
  • Akademia Finansów i Biznesu Vistula - Warszawa
  • Uniwersytet Warszawski
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