Znaczenie wiedzy akademickiej dla wynalazczości przedsiębiorstw w Polsce
The importance of academic knowledge for the inventiveness of enterprises in Poland
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Since knowledge was recognized as a key for innovativeness and consequently for the growth of countries and regions, policies of particular countries have emphasized stimulation of processes of knowledge generation and diffusion. Universities, in particular, have been recognized as a significant source of valuable knowledge whereas cooperation between science and industry as a key for the inventiveness of enterprises. The aim of this paper is to determine to what extent innovations generated by enterprises patenting in Poland base on academic knowledge and whether enterprises which make greater use of stocks of academic knowledge when creating their inventions are also more innovative (i.e. they can boast a greater number of patents). The co-called patent-citation method has been used to determine the extent to which the inventiveness of enterprises is based on knowledge originating from the area of science and it consists in an analysis of patent documents for the location of sources of knowledge that these enterprises cite. More precisely, knowledge sources have been investigated which inventors from enterprises patenting in Poland referred to in their patent descriptions, with the focus on whether the cited knowledge belonged to the stock of university knowledge. An analysis of 389 patent applications of 20 enterprises patenting in Poland in 2005-2011 for the origin of knowledge that was used by these enterprises to make an invention allowed for the formulation of several basic conclusions. Firstly, out of the total stock of knowledge that was used by enterprises while making their own inventions, only 15.03% were stocks of academic knowledge, with the inventiveness of enterprises based to a larger extent on Polish than foreign knowledge stocks of science. Secondly, the extent to which the inventiveness of enterprises was based on knowledge coming from public laboratories of scientific units was rather differentiated over the course of the period covered by the analysis, without showing neither upward nor downward trend. And lastly, the innovativeness of enterprises as measured by the number of obtained patents did not depend on neither whether or to what extent enterprises made use of scientific achievements during the creation of inventions. It is so because on the one hand the inventiveness of only few of the most innovative enterprises included in the analysis was based on knowledge originating from the area of science to a larger extent than usually. On the other hand, the use of only academic knowledge in the process of generation of inventions does not have to translate into success in the form of a large number of patents.
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