PL EN


2015 | 2015 1(102) | 115-130
Article title

Milczenie w organizacji. Rola uważności społecznej i czynników kontekstowych (Silence in the Organization: The Role of Social Mindfulness and Contextual Factors)

Content
Title variants
EN
Silence in the Organization: The Role of Social Mindfulness and Contextual Factors
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
PL
W artykule przedstawione zostały wyniki badań nad milczeniem w organizacji, rozumianym jako świadome powstrzymywanie się od zabierania głosu w sytuacji dostrzeżonych nieprawidłowości w organizacji. Znaczenie badań nad milczeniem ujawnia się zarówno w sferze produktywności, jak i etyki. Koszty milczenia, a w tym mniejsza innowacyjność, spadek efektywności zespołów oraz kreatywności jednostek, skłaniają do rozpoznania czynników modyfikujących rozmiary milczenia. Mają one charakter zarówno indywidualny, jak i kontekstowy. Uważność społeczna, czyli skłonność jednostki do takiego działania, które wyraża zrozumienie dla potrzeby autonomii innych ludzi oraz nastawienie na dobro innych ludzi, stanowi czynnik indywidualny. W ramach czynników kontekstowych wyróżniono ocenę zaangażowania kierownika w pracę, dokonywaną przez podwładnego, zajmowaną pozycję w hierarchii władzy oraz rodzaj zatrudnienia. Wyniki badań przeprowadzonych na pracownikach różnych firm wskazują na redukcję milczenia u osób uważnych społecznie oraz osób zajmujących stanowiska kierownicze. Milczenie rośnie wraz ze spadkiem zaangażowania przełożonego w pracę. Jeżeli milczenie jest motywowane nastawieniem na ochronę własnej grupy, to jego wielkość rośnie w przypadku umowy na czas ograniczony.
EN
This paper presents the results of the research into silence in the organization, which is understood as a conscious decision not to voice one’s own objections towards perceived wrongdoings or improper behavior. The significance of research into silence is visible in both the sphere of productivity and ethics. The costs of such silence can be felt in lower productivity, lower team effectiveness, and lower individual creativity. This is why it is important to define factors that can modify the intensity of silence. Their character is both individual and contextual. Social mindfulness—the tendency of the individual to act in a manner recognizing the need of autonomy of other people as well as an orientation aiming at the good of others—is an individual factor. Among contextual factors taken into account in the research are the engagement of the manager in work as assessed by the employee, position in the hierarchy, and type of employment. The results of research as conducted in various organizations show that silence is reduced in the case of people considered as being socially mindful as well as in managerial positions. Silence is stronger in the case of lower manager engagement. If the silence is motivated by a need to protect one’s own group, it intensifies in the case of defined–period employment contracts.
Year
Issue
Pages
115-130
Physical description
Document type
Research Communiqués
Dates
published
2015-02-15
Contributors
  • University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland
References
  • Anderson C., Berdahl J. L. (2002), The experience of power: examining the effects of power on approach and inhibition tendencies, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, nr 83.
  • Argyris C. (1990), Overcoming Organizational Defenses: Facilitating Organizational Learning, Boston, Allyn and Bacon.
  • Bar-Tal D. (2013), Initial thoughts about Self-censorship as a socio-political-psychological collective phenomenon, wykład wygłoszony podczas X Kongresu Polskiego Stowarzyszenia Psychologii Społecznej, Kraków, Polska.
  • Beer M., Eisenstat R. E. (2000), The silent killers of strategy implementation and learning, Sloan Management Review, nr 41.
  • Bogart K., Stein N. (1987), Breaking the silence: sexual harassment in education, Peabody Journal in Education, nr 64 (4).
  • Bowen F., Blackmon K. (2003), Spirals of silence: the dynamics effects of diversity on organizational voice, Journal of Management Studies, nr 40.
  • Brown P., Levinson S. (1987), Politeness. Some universals in language usage, Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press.
  • Collinson D. (2012), Prozac leadership and the limits of positive thinking, Leadership, nr 8.
  • Cortina L. M., Magley V. J.(2003), Raising voice, risking retaliation: Events following interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, nr 8.
  • Deci R. L., Connell J. P., Ryan R. M. (1989), Self-determination in work organization, Journal of Applied Psychology, nr 74.
  • Detert J. R., Edmondson A. C. (2011), Implicit voice theories: taken- for- granted rules of self-censorship at work, Academy of Management Journal, nr 54.
  • Doesum N. J. van, Lange D. A. W. van, Lange P. A. M. van (2013), Social Mindfulness: skill and will to navigate the social world, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, nr 1.
  • Dyne L. van, Ang S., Botero I. C. (2003), Conceptualizing Employee Silence and Employee Voice as multidimensional constructs, Journal of Management Studies, nr 40.
  • Fast N., Burris E., Bartel C. (2013), Managing to stay in the dark: managerial self-efficacy, ego defensiveness, and the aversion to employee voice, Academy of Management Journal, nr 4.
  • Galinsky A. D., Magee J. C., Inesi M. E., Gruenfeld D. H. (2006), Power and perspectives not taken, Psychological Science, nr 17.
  • Gibson R., Singh J. (2003), Wall of silence: the untold stories of the medical mistakes that kill and injure millions of Americans, Washington, DC, Lifeline Press.
  • Hameiri B., Sharvit K., Shahar E., Bar-Tal D. (2013), Support for self-censorship as a socio-psychological barrier to peace in Israel: Antecedents and consequences, prezentacja na dorocznym spotkaniu the International Society of Political Psychology (ISPP), Herzeliya, 8–11 lipca.
  • Hayes A. F., Scheufele D. A., Huge M. E. (2006), Nonparticipation as self-censorship: publicly observable political ativity in a polarized opinion climate, Political Behavior, nr 28.
  • Hirschman A. O. (1970), Exit, Voice and Loyalty: responses to decline in firms, organizations and states, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
  • Horsney M. J., Trembath M., Gunthorpe S. (2004), ‘You can criticize because you care’: identity attachment, constructiveness, and the intergroup sensitivity effect, European Journal of Social Psychology, nr 34.
  • Huang X., Van de Vliert E., Van der Vegt G. (2005), Breaking the silence culture: stimulation of participation and employee opinion withholding cross-nationally, Management and Organization Review, nr 3.
  • Islam G., Zyphur M. J. (2005), Power, voice and hierarchy: Exploring the antecedents of speaking up in groups, Groups Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, nr 9.
  • Jack D. C. (1991), Silencing the self, New York, Harper Perennial.
  • Kadzikowska-Wrzosek R. (2011), Wytrwałość i skuteczność działania: wpływ kontekstu sytuacyjnego i siły woli, Roczniki Psychologiczne, nr 2.
  • Kazimierska A. (2008), Ogólna Skala Ukierunkowania Przyczynowości i Skala Podstawowych Potrzeb Psychologicznych w ujęciu ogólnym Edwarda L. Deciego i Richarda M. Ryana – wstępna adaptacja kulturowa, niepublikowana praca magisterska, Uniwersytet Gdański.
  • Klammer J., Skarlicki D. P., Barclay L. (2001), Speaking up in the Canadian military: The role of voice, being heard, and generation in predicting civic virtue, Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, nr 34 (2).
  • Knoll M., Dick R. von (2013), Do I hear the whistle…? A first attempt to measure four forms of employee silence and their correlates, Journal of Business Ethics, nr 113.
  • Lange P. A. M. van, Kuhlmann D. M. (1994), Social value orientations and impressions of partner’s honesty and intelligence: A test of the might versus morality effect, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, nr 67.
  • Lawler E. J. (2001), An affect theory of social exchange, Annual Journal of Sociology, nr 107.
  • Lee F. (1993), Being polite and keeping MUM: how bad news is communicated in organizational hierarchies, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, nr 23.
  • Lesicki T. (2014), Opanowywanie lęku przed śmiercią: rola inteligencji duchowej i wyznania, niepublikowana praca magisterska, Uniwersytet Gdański.
  • Maner J. K., Kaschak M. P., Jones J. L. (2010), Social power and the advent of action, Social Cognition, nr 28.
  • Milliken F. J., Morrison E. W., Hewlin P. (2003), An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why, Journal of Management Studies, nr 40.
  • Morrison W. E. (2006), Doing the job well: An investigation of pro-social rule breaking, Journal of Management, nr 32.
  • Morrison W. E. (2011), Employee voice behavior: integration and directions for future research, The Academy of Management Annals, nr 1.
  • Morrison W. E. (2014), Employee voice and silence, The Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, nr 1.
  • Morrison W. E., Milliken F. J. (2000), Organizational silence: a barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world, Academy of Management Review, nr 25.
  • Morrison W. E., Rothman N. B. (2009), Silence and the dynamics of power, w Greenberg J., Edwards M. (red.), Voice and silence in organizations, (s. 172–205), Bingley, England, Emerald.
  • Park C. W. (2009), Organizational silence and whistle-blowing on IT projects: an integrated model, Decision Sciences, nr 40.
  • Perlow L. A, Williams S. (2003), Is silence killing your company? Harvard Business Review, nr 81(5).
  • Perlow L. A., Repenning N. M. (2009), The dynamics of silencing conflict, Research in Organizational Behavior, nr 29.
  • Rothwell G. R., Baldwin J. N. (2007), Ethical climate theory, whistle blowing and the code of silence in police agencies in the state of Georgia, Journal of Business Ethics, nr 70.
  • Rusbult C. E., Farrell D., Rogers G., Mainous A. G., III. (1988), Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty and neglect: an integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction, Academy of Management Journal, nr 31.
  • Ryan R. M., Deci E. L. (2000), Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being, American Psychologist, nr 55.
  • See K. E., Morrison E. W., Rothman N. B., Soll J. B. (2011), The detrimental effects of power on confidence, advice taking and accuracy, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, nr 116.
  • Sheriff R. E. (2008), Exposing silence as cultural censorship: a Brazilian case, American Anthropologist, nr 102.
  • Sonnenshein S. (2006), Crafting social issues at work, Academy of Management Journal, nr 49.
  • Stamper C., Dyne L. V. van (2001), Work status and organizational citizenship behavior: a field study of restaurant employees, Journal of Organizational Behavior, nr 22.
  • Tangirala S., Kamdar D., Venkataramani V., Parke M. (2013), Doing right versus getting ahead: the effects of duty and achievement orientations on employees’ voice, Journal of Applied Psycholy, nr 98.
  • Tangirala S., Ramanujam R. (2012), Ask and you shall hear: examining the relationship between manager consultation and employee voice, Personnel Psychology, nr 65.
  • Vakola M., Bourades D. (2005), Antecedents and consequences of organizational silence, Employee Relations, nr 27.
  • Verhezen P. (2010), Giving voice in a culture of silence. From a culture of compliance to a culture of integrity, Journal of Business Ethics, nr 96.
  • Wang A-Ch., Hsieh H-H., Tsai Ch-Y, Cheng B-S. (2011), Does value congruence lead to voice? Cooperative voice and cooperative silence under team and differentiated transformational leadership, Management and Organization Review, nr 2.
  • Whiting S. W., Podsakof P. M., Pierce J. M. (2009), Effects of task performance, helping, voice and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal ratings, Journal of Applied Psychology, nr 93.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
1641-0874
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-c90b7e22-b772-490f-a501-1ff6b99be991
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.